Transformational Social Leadership

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Transformational Social Leadership

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Transformational Social Leadership:

Transformational Social Leadership The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2015 (All Rights Reserved)

Biblical Authority:

Biblical Authority Matthew 20:26 (NIV)  26  Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, ______   Matthew 23:11 (NIV) 11  The greatest among you will be your servant. ______ Mark 10:42-45 (NIV) 42  Jesus called them together and said, “You know that those who are regarded as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. 43  Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, 44  and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all. 45  For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” ______   Luke 22:26 (NIV) 26  But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules like the one who serves. ______ John 13:12-17 (NIV) 12  When he had finished washing their feet, he put on his clothes and returned to his place. “Do you understand what I have done for you?” he asked them. 13  “You call me ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord,’ and rightly so, for that is what I am. 14  Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet. 15  I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you. 16  Very truly I tell you, no servant is greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him. 17  Now that you know these things, you will be blessed if you do them. 2 2

Introduction:

Introduction Transformational Leadership is a style of leadership where the leader is charged with identifying the needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of the group. It also serves to enhance the motivation, morale, and job performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms; these include Connecting the follower's sense of identity & self to the project and the collective identity of the organization; Being a role model for followers in order to inspire them and raise their interest in the project; Challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, allowing the leader to align followers with tasks that enhance their performance. 3 3

Introduction:

Introduction According to biographer James MacGregor Burns, transformational leadership can be seen when "leaders and followers make each other advance to a higher level of morality and motivation." Through the strength of their vision and personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work towards common goals. Unlike in the transactional approach, it is not based on a "give and take" relationship, but on the leader's personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community. 4 4

Characteristics of a Transformational Leader:

Characteristics of a Transformational Leader Five major personality traits have been identified as factors contributing to the likelihood of an individual displaying the characteristics of a transformational leader. These five traits are as follows. Extraversion Neuroticism Openness to Experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness 5 5

Characteristics of a Transformational Leader:

Characteristics of a Transformational Leader Extraversion The two main characteristics of extraverts are affiliation and agency, which relate to the social and leadership aspects of their personality, respectively. Extraversion is generally seen as an inspirational trait usually exhibited in transformational leadership. Neuroticism Neuroticism generally gives an individual an anxiety related to productivity which, in a group setting can be debilitating to a degree where they are unlikely to position themselves in a role of transformational leadership due to lower self-esteem and a tendency to shirk from leadership responsibilities. Openness to Experience Creative expression and emotional responsiveness have been linked to a general tendency of openness to experience. This trait is also seen as a component of transformational leadership as it relates to the ability to give big-picture visionary leadership for an organization. Agreeableness Although not a trait which specifically points to transformational leadership, leaders in general possess an agreeable nature stemming from a natural concern for others and high levels of individual consideration. Charisma and idealized influence is a classic ability of individuals who possess agreeability. Conscientiousness Strong sense of direction and the ability to put large amounts of productive work into tasks is the by-product of conscientious leaders. This trait is more linked to a transactional form of leadership given the management-based abilities of such individuals and the detail oriented nature of their personality. 6 6

Effectiveness & Comparisons:

Effectiveness & Comparisons Studies have shown that transformational leadership styles are associated with positive outcomes in relation to other leadership styles. Charisma (or Idealized Influence) was found to be a variable that was most strongly related to leader effectiveness among MLQ scales. Other studies show that transformational leadership is positively associated with employee outcomes including commitment, role clarity, and well-being. 7 7

Effectiveness & Comparisons:

Effectiveness & Comparisons In contrast to Transformational leadership, Transactional leadership styles focus on the use of rewards and punishments in order to achieve compliance from followers. Transformational leaders look towards changing the future to inspire followers and accomplish goals, whereas transactional leaders seek to maintain the status quo , not aiming for progress. Studies have shown transformational leadership practices lead to higher satisfaction with leader among followers and greater leader effectiveness, while transactional practices lead to higher follower job satisfaction and leader job performance 8 8

Effectiveness & Comparisons:

Effectiveness & Comparisons Laissez-Faire Leadership In a laissez-faire leadership style, a person may be given a leadership position without providing leadership, which leaves followers to fend for themselves. This leads to subordinates having a free hand in deciding policies and methods. Studies have shown that while transformational leadership styles are associated with positive outcomes, laissez-faire leadership is associated with negative outcomes, especially in terms of follower satisfaction with leader and leader effectiveness. Also, other studies comparing the leadership styles of men and women have shown that female leaders tend to be more transformational with their leadership styles, whereas laissez-faire leadership is more prevalent in male leaders 9 9

Noteworthy Transformational Leaders:

Noteworthy Transformational Leaders Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela used transformational leadership principles while working to abolish apartheid and enforce change in South Africa. In 2000, he was quoted as saying, "For all people who have found themselves in the position of being in jail and trying to transform society, forgiveness is natural because you have no time to be retaliative .". 10 10

Noteworthy Transformational Leaders:

Noteworthy Transformational Leaders Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945) Commonly known by his initials FDR , was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States. A Democrat, he won a record four elections and served from March 1933 to his death in April 1945. He was a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. His program for relief, recovery and reform, known as the New Deal, involved the great expansion of the role of the federal government in the economy. A dominant leader of the Democratic Party, he built the New Deal Coalition that united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, and rural white Southerners. The Coalition realigned American politics after 1932, creating the Fifth Party System and defining American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century. 11 11

Noteworthy Transformational Leaders:

Noteworthy Transformational Leaders Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs. King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, (the Albany Movement), and helped organize the 1963 nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama, that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. 12 12

Servant Leadership:

Servant Leadership Servant Leadership is both a leadership philosophy and set of leadership practices. Traditional leadership generally involves the accumulation and exercise of power by one at the “top of the pyramid.” By comparison, the servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible. Servant leadership is an ancient philosophy. 13 13

Servant Leadership:

Servant Leadership In the Tao Te Ching , attributed to Lao-Tzu, who is believed to have lived in China sometime between 570 BCE and 490 BCE: The highest type of ruler is one of whose existence the people are barely aware. Next comes one whom they love and praise. Next comes one whom they fear. Next comes one whom they despise and defy. Servant leadership can be found in many religious texts, though the philosophy itself transcends any particular religious tradition. In the Christian tradition, this passage from the Gospel of Mark is often quoted in discussions of servant leadership: "42 Jesus called them together and said, “You know that those who are regarded as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. 43 Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, 44 and whoever wants to be first must be servant of all. 45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” Mark 10:42-45 14 14

Servant Leadership:

Servant Leadership The most common division of leadership styles is the distinction between autocratic, participative and laissez-faire leadership styles. The authoritarian style of leadership requires clearly defined tasks and monitoring their execution and results. The decision-making responsibility rests with the executive. In contrast to the autocratic, the practice of a participative leadership style involves employees in decision-making. More extensive tasks are delegated. The employees influence and responsibility increases. Servant leadership can be most likely associated with the participative leadership style. 15 15

Three Levels of Leadership:

Three Levels of Leadership The three levels referred to in the model’s name are Public , Private and Personal leadership. The model is usually presented in diagram form as three concentric circles and four outwardly-directed arrows, with personal leadership in the center. The idea is that if leaders want to be effective they must work on all three levels in parallel. 16 16

Three Levels of Leadership:

Three Levels of Leadership The two outer levels – public and private leadership – are what the leader must do behaviorally with individuals or groups to address the “four dimensions of leadership” ( Scouller 2011). These are: A shared, motivating group purpose or vision. Action, progress and results. Collective unity or team spirit. Individual selection and motivation. The inner level – personal leadership – refers to what leaders should do to grow their leadership presence, knowhow and skill. It has three aspects: Developing one’s technical knowhow and skill. Cultivating the right attitude toward other people. Working on psychological self-mastery. 17 17

Situational Leadership:

Situational Leadership The fundamental underpinning of the situational leadership theory is that there is no single "best" style of leadership. Effective leadership is task-relevant, and the most successful leaders are those who adapt their leadership style to the maturity ("the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness and ability to take responsibility for the task, and relevant education and/or experience of an individual or a group for the task") of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence. Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job or function that needs to be accomplished. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model rests on two fundamental concepts; leadership style and the individual or group's maturity level. 18 18

Situational Leadership:

Situational Leadership Leadership Styles S1: Telling - is characterized by one-way communication in which the leader defines the roles of the individual or group and provides the what, how, why, when and where to do the task; S2: Selling - while the leader is still providing the direction, he or she is now using two-way communication and providing the socio-emotional support that will allow the individual or group being influenced to buy into the process; S3: Participating - this is how shared decision-making about aspects of how the task is accomplished and the leader is providing less task behaviors while maintaining high relationship behavior; S4: Delegating - the leader is still involved in decisions; however, the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual or group. The leader stays involved to monitor progress. 19 19

Situational Leadership:

Situational Leadership Maturity Levels M1 - They still lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and are unable and unwilling to do or to take responsibility for this job or task. (According to Ken Blanchard "The honeymoon is over") M2 - They are unable to take on responsibility for the task being done; however, they are willing to work at the task. They are novice but enthusiastic. M3 - They are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility. M4 - They are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for the task. 20 20

Contingency Theory:

Contingency Theory A Contingency Theory is an organizational theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. A contingent leader effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right situation. Two types of behaviors proved to be especially typical of effective leaders: consideration leader behaviors that include building good rapport and interpersonal relationships and showing support and concern for subordinates and (2) initiating structure leader behaviors that provided structure (e.g., role assignment, planning, scheduling) to ensure task completion and goal attainment. 21 21

Contingency Theory:

Contingency Theory Gareth Morgan in his book Images of Organization describes the main ideas underlying contingency in a nutshell: Organizations are open systems that need careful management to satisfy and balance internal needs and to adapt to environmental circumstances There is no one best way of organizing. The appropriate form depends on the kind of task or environment one is dealing with. Management must be concerned, above all else, with achieving alignments and good fits Different types or species of organizations are needed in different types of environments 22 22

Transactional Leadership:

Transactional Leadership Transactional Leadership , also known as managerial leadership, focuses on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance; transactional leadership is a style of leadership in which the leader promotes compliance of his/her followers through both rewards and punishments. Unlike Transformational leadership, leaders using the transactional approach are not looking to change the future, they are looking to merely keep things the same. Leaders using transactional leadership as a model pay attention to followers' work in order to find faults and deviations. This type of leadership is effective in crisis and emergency situations, as well as for projects that need to be carried out in a specific way. 23 23

Transactional Leadership:

Transactional Leadership "Adhering to the path-goal theory, transactional leaders are expected to do the following: "Set goals, articulate explicit agreements regarding what the leader expects from organizational members and how they will be rewarded for their efforts and commitment, and provide constructive feedback to keep everybody on task" (Vera & Crossan , 2004, p. 224). Transactional leaders focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures and are more concerned with following existing rules than with making changes to the structure of the organization. Thus, they operate most effectively in organizations that have evolved beyond the chaotic, no-rules stage of entrepreneurial development that characterizes so many new companies. Transactional leadership establishes and standardizes practices that will help the organization reach maturity, emphasizing setting of goals, efficiency of operation, and increase of productivity. " 24 24

Trait Leadership:

Trait Leadership Trait Leadership is defined as integrated patterns of personal characteristics that reflect a range of individual differences and foster consistent leader effectiveness across a variety of group and organizational situations ( Zaccaro , Kemp, & Bader, 2004). The theory of trait leadership developed from early leadership research which focused primarily on finding a group of heritable attributes that differentiated leaders from nonleaders . Leader effectiveness refers to the amount of influence a leader has on individual or group performance, followers’ satisfaction, and overall effectiveness ( Derue , Nahrgang , Wellman, & Humphrey, 2011). Many scholars have argued that leadership is unique to only a select number of individuals and that these individuals possess certain immutable traits that cannot be developed (Galton, 1869). 25 25

Trait Leadership:

Trait Leadership Based on a recent review of the trait leadership literature, Derue and others (2011) stated that most leader traits can be organized into three categories: demographic, task competence, and interpersonal attributes. Demographics : gender has by far received the most attention in terms of leadership; however, most scholars have found that male and female leaders are both equally effective. Task Competence : relates to how individuals approach the execution and performance of tasks (Bass & Bass, 2008). Hoffman grouped intelligence, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and Emotional Stability into this category. Interpersonal Attributes : are related to how a leader approaches social interactions. According to Hoffman and others (2011), Extraversion and Agreeableness should be grouped into this category. 26 26

Questions & Answers:

Questions & Answers 27 27

Thank You!:

Thank You! 28 The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0100 Voice | Data | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2015 (All Rights Reserved) 28

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