International Labor Relations

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International Labor Relations

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The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. International Labor Relations “Helping Individuals, Organizations & Communities Achieve Their Full Potential” The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (878) 222-0450 Voice | Fax | SMS www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2014 (All Rights Reserved)

Biblical Authority:

Biblical Authority Hebrews 6:10 (NIV) 10  God is not unjust; he will not forget your work and the love you have shown him as you have helped his people and continue to help them. Colossians 3:23 (NIV) 23  Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for human masters, 2

Introduction:

Introduction Labor Relations is the study and practice of managing unionized employment situations. In academia, labor relations is frequently a subarea within industrial relations, though scholars from many disciplines--including economics, sociology, history, law, and political science--also study labor unions and labor movements. In practice, labor relations is frequently a subarea within human resource management. In the United States, labor relations in the Private Secto r is regulated by the National Labor Relations Act . Public Sector labor relations is regulated by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 and various pieces of state legislation. In other countries, labor relations might be regulated by law or tradition. Industrial Relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship. Industrial relations is increasingly being called employment relations or employee relations because of the importance of non-industrial employment relationships; this move is sometimes seen as further broadening of the human resource management trend. 3

Introduction:

Introduction Industrial Relations Today   By many accounts, industrial relations today is in crisis. In academia, its traditional positions are threatened on one side by the dominance of mainstream economics and organizational behavior, and on the other by postmodernism. In policy-making circles, the industrial relations emphasis on institutional intervention is trumped by a neoliberal emphasis on the laissez faire promotion of free markets. In practice, labor unions are declining and fewer companies have industrial relations functions. The number of academic programs in industrial relations is therefore shrinking, and scholars are leaving the field for other areas, especially human resource management and organizational behavior. The importance of work, however, is stronger than ever, and the lessons of industrial relations remain vital. The challenge for industrial relations is to re-establish these connections with the broader academic, policy, and business worlds. 4

Introduction:

Introduction 5 Legal and Ethical Issues in International Business   When markets in foreign countries offer a higher profit potential than your home market, it makes sense to expand internationally. As you prepare your expansion and research target markets in other countries, you will often find that the legal structures and ethical frameworks differ substantially from those in the United States. You have to address the legal and ethical issues of your entering these markets to make your expansion a success.

The International Labour Organization:

The International Labour Organization 6 The International Labour Organization ( ILO ) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards and decent work for all. 185 of the 193 UN member states are members of the ILO. In 1969, the organization received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving peace among classes, pursuing justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations. The ILO registers complaints against entities that are violating international rules; however, it does not impose sanctions on governments.

The International Labour Organization:

The International Labour Organization 7 Labour Statistics The ILO is a major provider of labour statistics. Labour statistics are an important tool for its member states to monitor their progress toward improving labour standards. As part of their statistical work, ILO maintains several databases. This database covers 11 major data series for over 200 countries. In addition, ILO publishes a number of compilations of labour statistics, such as the Key Indicators of Labour Markets (KILM). KILM covers 20 main indicators on labour participation rates, employment, unemployment, educational attainment, labour cost, and economic performance. Many of these indicators have been prepared by other organizations. For example, the Division of International Labour Comparisons of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics prepares the hourly compensation in manufacturing indicator.

The International Labour Organization:

The International Labour Organization 8 Child Labour The term child labour is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, potential, dignity, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Child labour refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by: depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; obliging them to leave school prematurely; or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.

Business Ethics:

Business Ethics 9 Business Ethics (also corporate ethics ) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.

Business Ethics:

Business Ethics 10 International Standards relating to Intellectual Property Rights are enforced through Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). In the US, IP other than copyrights is regulated by the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Business Ethics:

Business Ethics 11 International Issues Issues and subfields include: The search for universal values as a basis for international commercial behavior. Comparison of business ethical traditions in different countries. Also on the basis of their respective GDP and [Corruption rankings]. Comparison of business ethical traditions from various religious perspectives. Ethical issues arising out of international business transactions; e.g., bioprospecting and biopiracy in the pharmaceutical industry; the fair trade movement; transfer pricing . Issues such as globalization and cultural imperialism . Varying global standards—e.g., the use of child labor . The way in which multinationals take advantage of international differences, such as outsourcing production (e.g. clothes) and services (e.g. call centers) to low-wage countries. The permissibility of international commerce with pariah states. While business ethics emerged as a field in the 1970s, international business ethics did not emerge until the late 1990s

The National Labor Relations Act:

The National Labor Relations Act 12 The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 449) 29 U.S.C. § 151–169 (also known as the Wagner Act after NY Senator Robert F. Wagner) is a foundational statute of US labor law which guarantees basic rights of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining for better terms and conditions at work, and take collective action including strike if necessary. The Act does not apply to workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, federal, state or local government workers, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers.

The National Labor Relations Act:

The National Labor Relations Act 13 Unfair labor practices Under section 8 (29 U.S.C. § 158) the law defines a set of prohibited actions by employers, employees, and unions, known as an unfair labor practice. The first five unfair labor practices aimed at employers are in section 8(a). These are, (a)(1) "to interfere with, restrain, or coerce employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed in section 7". This includes freedom of association, mutual aid or protection, self-organization, to form, join, or assist labor organizations, to bargain collectively for wages and working conditions through representatives of their own choosing, and to engage in other protected concerted activities with or without a union. (a)(2) "to dominate or interfere with the formation or administration of any labor organization or contribute financial or other support to it" (a)(3) "by discrimination in regard to hire or tenure of employment or any term or condition of employment to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization" (a)(4) discriminating against employees who file charges or testify. (a)(5) refusing to bargain collectively with the representative of the employer's employees.

The National Labor Relations Board:

The National Labor Relations Board 14 The National Labor Relations Board ( NLRB ) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with conducting elections for labor union representation and with investigating and remedying unfair labor practices. Unfair labor practices may involve union-related situations or instances of protected concerted activity.

The National Labor Relations Board:

The National Labor Relations Board 15 The NLRB is governed by a five-person board and a General Counsel, all of whom are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. Board members are appointed to five-year terms and the General Counsel is appointed to a four-year term. The General Counsel acts as a prosecutor and the Board acts as an appellate judicial body from decisions of administrative law judges. As of 2013, the NLRB is headquartered at 1099 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C., with over 30 regional, sub-regional, and residential offices throughout the U.S.

The National Labor Relations Board:

The National Labor Relations Board 16 Taft-Hartley A major turning point in the history of the NLRB came in 1947 with passage of the Taft-Hartley Act. Disruptions caused by strikes during World War II as well as the huge wave of strikes the followed the end of the war fueled a growing movement in 1946 and 1947 to amend the NLRA to correct what critics saw as a pro-labor tilt in federal law. The Taft-Hartley Act banned jurisdictional strikes, wildcat strikes, political strikes, secondary boycotts, secondary picketing, mass picketing, union campaign donations made from dues money, the closed shop, and unions of supervisors. The act also enumerated new employer rights, defined union-committed ULPs, gave states the right to opt out of federal labor law through right-to-work laws, required unions to give an 80-days' strike notice in all cases, established procedures for the President to end a strike in a national emergency, and required all union officials to sign an anti-Communist oath.

The National Labor Party:

The National Labor Party 17 The National Labor Party was formed by Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes in 1916. Hughes had taken over as leader of the Australian Labor Party and Prime Minister of Australia when anti- conscriptionist Andrew Fisher resigned in 1915. He formed the new party for himself and his followers after he was expelled from the ALP a month after the 1916 plebiscite on Conscription in Australia. Hughes held a pro-conscription stance in relation to World War I.

Walmart International:

Walmart International 18 As of January 2014, Walmart's international operations comprise 6,337 stores and 800,000 workers in 26 countries outside the United States. There are wholly owned operations in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and the UK. With 2.2 million employees worldwide, the company is the largest private employer in the U.S. and Mexico, and one of the largest in Canada. In the financial year 2010, Walmart's international division sales were $100 billion (equivalent to $108 billion in 2014)

Walmart International:

Walmart International 19 Walmart has operated in Canada since its acquisition of 122 stores comprising the Woolco division of Woolworth Canada, Inc in 1994. As of January 2014, it operates over 370 locations (including 100 Supercentres) and employs 90,000 Canadians. In the mid-1990s Walmart tried with a large financial investment to get a foothold in the German retail market. In 1997 Walmart took over the supermarket chain Wertkauf with its 21 stores for DEM750 million (equivalent to DM909 million in 2014) (€375 million) and in 1998 Walmart took over 74 Interspar stores for DEM1.3 billion (equivalent to DM1.55 billion in 2014) (€750 million). In July 2006, Walmart announced its withdrawal from Germany due to sustained losses. In 2004, Walmart bought the 118 stores in the Bompreço supermarket chain in northeastern Brazil.

McDonald’s Corporation:

McDonald’s Corporation 20 The McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in 119 countries across 35,000 outlets. Businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as a franchise agent in 1955. He subsequently purchased the chain from the McDonald brothers and oversaw its worldwide growth. In 2012, McDonald's Corporation had annual revenues of $27.5 billion, and profits of $5.5 billion.

McDonald’s Corporation:

McDonald’s Corporation 21 McDonald's has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred to as the " McDonaldization " of society. The Economist newspaper uses the "Big Mac Index": the comparison of a Big Mac's cost in various world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies' purchasing power parity. Norway has the most expensive Big Mac in the world as of July 2011, while the country with the least expensive Big Mac is India (albeit for a Maharaja Mac—the next cheapest Big Mac is Hong Kong). Space exploration McDonald's and NASA explored an advertising agreement for a planned mission to the asteroid 449 Hamburga ; however, the spacecraft was eventually cancelled.

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22 22 Questions & Answers

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23 Thank You! The Advocacy Foundation 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 Philadelphia, PA 19102 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Atlanta, GA 30303 (855) ADVOC8.0 (855) 238-6280 www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org

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