Critical Thinking for Transformative Justice

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Critical Thinking for Transformative Justice

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The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. Critical Thinking for Transformative Justice The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (855) ADVOC8.O ( 855) 238-6280 www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2014 (All Rights Reserved)

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1 Timothy 1:1-11 (AMP) 1 Paul, an apostle (special messenger) of Christ Jesus by appointment and command of God our Savior and of Christ Jesus (the Messiah), our Hope, 2  To Timothy, my true son in the faith: Grace (spiritual blessing and favor), mercy, and [heart] peace [be yours] from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. 3  As I urged you when I was on my way to Macedonia, stay on where you are at Ephesus in order that you may warn and admonish and charge certain individuals not to teach any different doctrine, 4  Nor to give importance to or occupy themselves with legends (fables, myths) and endless genealogies, which foster and promote useless speculations and questionings rather than acceptance in faith of God’s administration and the divine training that is in faith ( [ a ] in that leaning of the entire human personality on God in absolute trust and confidence)— 5  Whereas the object and purpose of our instruction and charge is love, which springs from a pure heart and a good (clear) conscience and sincere (unfeigned) faith. 6  But certain individuals have missed the mark on this very matter [and] have wandered away into vain arguments and discussions and purposeless talk. 7  They are ambitious to be doctors of the Law (teachers of the Mosaic ritual), but they have no understanding either of the words and terms they use or of the subjects about which they make [such] dogmatic assertions. 8  Now we recognize and know that the Law is good if anyone uses it lawfully [for the purpose for which it was designed], 9  Knowing and understanding this: that the Law is not enacted for the righteous (the upright and just, who are in right standing with God), but for the lawless and unruly, for the ungodly and sinful, for the irreverent and profane, for those who strike and beat and [even] murder fathers and strike and beat and [even] murder mothers, for manslayers, 10  [For] impure and immoral persons, those who abuse themselves with men, kidnapers, liars, perjurers—and whatever else is opposed to wholesome teaching and sound doctrine 11  As laid down by the glorious Gospel of the blessed God, with which I have been entrusted. Biblical Authority 2

Introduction:

Introduction Critical Thinking noun   disciplined thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence - Dictionary.com The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines it as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Critical thinking...the awakening of the intellect to the study of itself. 3

Introduction:

Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: a set of information and belief generating and processing skills, and 2) the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior. It is thus to be contrasted with: the mere acquisition and retention of information alone, because it involves a particular way in which information is sought and treated; 2 the mere possession of a set of skills, because it involves the continual use of them; and the mere use of those skills ("as an exercise") without acceptance of their results. 4 Introduction

Deductive Reasoning Logic:

Deductive Reasoning Logic Deductive reasoning , also deductive logic or logical deduction or, informally, "top-down" logic , is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion. Deductive reasoning links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. 5

Deductive Reasoning:

Deductive reasoning (top-down logic) contrasts with inductive reasoning (bottom-up logic) in the following way: In deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules that hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion is left. An example of a deductive argument: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. 6 Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning:

The law of detachment (also known as affirming the antecedent and Modus ponens ) is the first form of deductive reasoning. A single conditional statement is made, and a hypothesis (P) is stated. The conclusion (Q) is then deduced from the statement and the hypothesis. The most basic form is listed below: P → Q (conditional statement) P (hypothesis stated) Q (conclusion deduced) Deductive arguments are evaluated in terms of their V alidity and Soundness . (An argument is valid if it is impossible for its premises to be true while its conclusion is false.) 7 Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning Process of Elimination:

Inductive Reasoning Process of Elimination Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning) is reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is supposed to be certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument is supposed to be probable , based upon the evidence given. The philosophical definition of inductive reasoning is more nuanced than simple progression from particular/individual instances to broader generalizations. 8

Inductive Reasoning Laws of Probability:

Many dictionaries define inductive reasoning as reasoning that derives general principles from specific observations, though some sources disagree with this usage. Inductive reasoning is inherently uncertain. It only deals in degrees to which, given the premises, the conclusion is credible according to some theory of evidence. A statistical syllogism is an example of inductive reasoning: Almost all people are taller than 26 inches Gareth is a person Therefore, Gareth is almost certainly taller than 26 inches 9 Inductive Reasoning Laws of Probability

Inductive Reasoning Inductive v. Deductive:

Unlike deductive arguments, inductive reasoning allows for the possibility that the conclusion is false, even if all of the premises are true. Instead of being valid or invalid, inductive arguments are either strong or weak , which describes how probable it is that the conclusion is true. A classical example of an incorrect inductive argument was presented by John Vickers: All of the swans we have seen are white. Therefore, all swans are white. 10 Inductive Reasoning Inductive v. Deductive

Logic:

Logic Logic (from the Ancient Greek: λογική , logike ) is the use and study of valid reasoning. The study of logic features most prominently in the subjects of philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, Persia and Greece. In the West, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium , which also included grammar and rhetoric. Logic was further extended by Al- Farabi who categorized it into two separate groups ( Idea and Proof ). 11

Logic:

Logic is often divided into three parts: inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning. And there are four types: Informal: the study of natural language arguments (Plato); Formal: the study of inference with purely formal content (Aristotle); Symbolic: the study of symbolic abstractions (Propositional & Predicate); and Mathematic: an extension of symbolic logic into other areas (Model Theory, Proof Theory, Set Theory, and Recursion Theory ). 12 Logic

Critical Social Theory:

Critical Social Theory The Frankfurt School (German: Frankfurter Schule ) is a school of neo-Marxist interdisciplinary social theory associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany. Critical of both capitalism and Soviet socialism, their writings pointed to the possibility of an alternative path to social development. The school's main figures sought to learn from and synthesize the works of such varied thinkers as Kant, Hegel, Marx, Freud, Weber and Lukács . 13

Critical Social Theory:

Following Marx, they were concerned with the conditions that allow for social change and the establishment of rational institutions. Their emphasis on the "critical" component of theory was derived significantly from their attempt to overcome the limits of positivism, materialism and determinism. Since the 1960s, Frankfurt School critical theory has increasingly been guided by Jürgen Habermas's work on communicative reason, linguistic intersubjectivity and what Habermas calls "the philosophical discourse of modernity“. 14 Critical Social Theory

Critical Social Theory:

More recently, critical theorists such as Raymond Geuss and Nikolas Kompridis have voiced opposition to Habermas, claiming that he has undermined the aspirations for social change which originally gave purpose to critical theory's various projects—for example the problem of what reason should mean, the analysis and enlargement of " conditions of possibility" for social emancipation , and the critique of modern capitalism . 15 Critical Social Theory

The Critique of Ideology:

The Critique of Ideology Critical Theory may be defined as a self-conscious social critique that is aimed at change and emancipation through enlightenment, and does not cling dogmatically to its own doctrinal assumptions. The original aim of critical theory was to analyze the true significance of "the ruling understandings" generated in bourgeois society, in order to show how they misrepresented actual human interaction in the real world, and in so doing functioned to justify or legitimize the domination of people by capitalism. A certain sort of story (a narrative) was provided to explain what was happening in society, but the story concealed as much as it revealed. 16

The Critique of Ideology:

Frankfurt School theorists were explicitly linking up with the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, where the term critique meant philosophical reflection on the limits of claims made for certain kinds of knowledge The facts which our senses present to us are socially performed in two ways: through the historical character of the object perceived and through the historical character of the perceiving organ. Both are not simply natural; they are shaped by human activity, and yet the individual perceives himself as receptive and passive in the act of perception. 17 The Critique of Ideology

Enlightenment:

Enlightenment Enlightenment refers to the " Full Comprehension of a Situation " In Christianity, the word "enlightenment" is rarely used, except to refer to the Age of Enlightenment and its influence on Christianity. Perennialists and Universalists view enlightenment and mysticism as equivalent terms for religious or spiritual insight. The word "enlightenment" is not generally used in Christian contexts for religious understanding or insight. More commonly used terms in the Christian tradition are religious Conversion and Revelation . 18

Enlightenment:

Christians who are "illuminated" are of two groups, those who have experienced true illuminism (biblical) and those who experienced false illuminism (not from the Holy Spirit). In a few places Eastern contemplative techniques have been integrated in Christian practices, such as centering prayer. 19 Enlightenment

Enlightenment:

Western and Mediterranean culture has a rich tradition of esotericism and mysticism. The Perennial philosophy, basic to the New Age understanding of the world, regards those traditions as akin to Eastern religions which aim at awakening/ enlightenment and developing wisdom. In the Fourth Way teaching, enlightenment is the highest state of Man (humanity). 20 Enlightenment

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22 Questions & Answers

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23 Thank You! The Advocacy Foundation 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 Philadelphia, PA 19102 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Atlanta, GA 30303 (855) ADVOC8.0 (855) 238-6280 www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org

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