Data-Driven Resource Allocation

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Data-Driven Resource Allocation “Helping Individuals, Organizations & Communities Achieve Their Full Potential”:

Data-Driven Resource Allocation “Helping Individuals, Organizations & Communities Achieve Their Full Potential” The Advocacy Foundation 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Philadelphia, PA 19102 Atlanta, GA 30303 (855) ADVOC8.0 ( 855) 238-6280 www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org © The Advocacy Foundation, Inc. 2014 (All Rights Reserved)

Biblical Authority:

Biblical Authority Proverbs 18:13 (AMP) 13  He who answers a matter before he hears the facts—it is folly and shame to him.   Proverbs 18:17 (AMP) 17  He who states his case first seems right, until his rival comes and cross-examines him. 2

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Our Mission 3 The Mission of The Advocacy Foundation is Threefold: To Rescue Young Persons From the Prison Pipeline and Help Redirect and Restore Their Lives; To Teach New and Fledgling Nonprofit Organizations to Become Fundable, Thrive, and Maintain Compliance; To Train Qualified Professionals With a Passion for Effective Careers in The Juvenile Justice System.

Introduction Data-Informed Decision Making:

DIDM refers to the collection and analysis of data to guide decisions that improve success. DIDM is used in education communities (where data is used with the goal of helping students) but is also applicable to (and thus also used in) other fields in which data is used to inform decisions . In a recently published article, “ Data Science and its Relationship to Big Data and Data-Driven Decision Making ,” Foster Provost and Tom Fawcett define data-driven decision making as “the practice of basing decisions on the analysis of data rather than purely on intuition.” 4 Introduction Data-Informed Decision Making

Introduction Data-Informed Decision Making:

5 One of the biggest challenges in leveraging data science to help make complex strategic decisions is to mistakenly assume that an unordered, unpredictable, complex context is in fact an ordered, predicable complicated one. Circumstances change, however, and as they become more complex, the simplifications can fail. Good leadership is not a one-size-fits-all proposition.” Square pegs don’t fit into round holes! - JCJ III (circa 2014) Introduction Data-Informed Decision Making

Data Gathering:

6 Policy Considerations It’s important to understand both the promises, and the limitations, of DIDM. When can we embed decisions into well understood, automated processes? When does automation run into limits, and should we view data-driven decision making as a tool to help people make smarter, more effective decisions? What about privacy issues? Data Gathering

Data Gathering:

7 Privacy Issues These decision making applications require access to vast amounts of personal information, which leads to very serious concerns about privacy, data ownership and data control. Considerable research is needed as we learn how to strike the right balance between such data-driven decision making and privacy. Data Gathering

Community Needs Assessments:

8 A Community Needs Assessment is a combination of information gathering, community engagement and focused action with the goal of community improvement. A community needs assessment identifies the strengths and weaknesses (needs) within a community. A community needs assessment is also unique and specific to the needs within a community and is usually an extension of a community's strategic planning process. Community Needs Assessments

Community Needs Assessments:

9 Types of Community Needs Assessment Community Needs Assessment I This type of needs assessment seeks to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses within a community and create or improve services based on the identified weaknesses (primarily structured around how to best obtain information, opinions, and input from the community and then what to do with that information). Community Needs Assessment II This type of needs assessment is constructed around a known problem or potential problem facing the community for example, disaster preparedness, how to address an increase in violent crime etc. This type of community needs assessment centers less around the direct involvement of the community but rather the governing entities, stakeholders, businesses, advocacy groups and organizations which will be potentially affected or can contribute to the community need. Community Needs Assessments

Community Needs Assessments:

10 Community Needs Assessment III This final type of needs assessment is based within an organization which either serves the community at large, is currently addressing a need within the community, or is dedicated to an under-served population within the community. This type of needs assessment centers around improving the efficiency or effectiveness of such organizations. Potential Organization Questions Could Include: Learn about the organizational culture and its philosophy by interviewing staff, including the executive director; Review existing materials regarding the community need and the organization. Tour the community and learn more about the target population or problem the organization serves. Community Needs Assessments

Community Needs Assessments:

11 Conducting A Community-Level Needs Assessment The goals of a 'needs assessment' is to identify the assets of a community and determine potential concerns that it faces”. A needs assessment therefore becomes crucial in the initial stages of an intervention. A needs analysis is focused on identifying the possible barriers to successful program intervention in a community and possibly finding solutions to these challenges. Community Needs Assessments

Crunching The Numbers Big Data:

12 Big data is an all-encompassing term for any collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using traditional data processing applications. It usually includes data sets with sizes beyond the ability of commonly used software tools to capture, curate, manage, and process data within a tolerable elapsed time. Big data "size" is a constantly moving target , as of 2012 ranging from a few dozen Terabytes to many Petabytes of data. Crunching The Numbers Big Data

Crunching The Numbers Big Data:

13 The Three “V’s” Model In a 2001 research report and related lectures, META Group (now Gartner) analyst Doug Laney defined data growth challenges and opportunities as being three-dimensional: Volume (amount of data), Velocity (speed of data in and out), and Variety (range of data types and sources). Crunching The Numbers Big Data

Crunching The Numbers Big Data:

14 Characteristics of Big Data Big data can be described by the following characteristics:   Volume – It is the size of the data which determines the value and potential of the data under consideration and whether it can actually be considered as Big Data. Variety - The next aspect of Big Data is its variety. This means that the category to which Big Data belongs to is also a very essential fact that needs to be known by the data analysts. Velocity - Refers to the speed of generation of data or how fast the data is generated and processed. Variability - Refers to the inconsistency which can be shown by the data. Complexity - Data management can become a very complex process, especially when large volumes of data come from multiple sources. Crunching The Numbers Big Data

Strategic Resource Allocation:

15 At one end of the spectrum are Operational Decisions , which are generally highly structured, routine, short-term oriented and increasingly embodied in sophisticated software applications. At the other end of the spectrum are Strategic Decisions . These are usually taken by high levels of management as they set the long-term directions and policies of a business, government or other organizations. They tend to be complex, and unstructured because of the uncertainty and risks that generally accompany longer term decisions. Strategic Resource Allocation

Strategic Resource Allocation:

16 Strategic decisions are aimed at setting the long term directions and policies of an organization. Making sound strategic decisions is one of the most important qualities of a great leader. The use of Big Data and data science to help with strategic decisions is in its early stages and requires quite a bit more research to understand how to use them under different contexts. Strategic Resource Allocation

Project Implementation:

17 The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring [certain] preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are [service deliverables, timetables, quality, budget and compliance]. The secondary — and more ambitious — challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary [resources] and integrate them to meet pre-defined [goals and] objectives. There are a number of approaches to managing project activities including lean, iterative, incremental, and phased approaches. Project Implementation

Project Implementation:

18 The Traditional Approach A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed. In the "traditional approach", five developmental components of a project can be distinguished (four stages plus control): Initiation [Mobilization] Execution Monitoring and Quality Control Evaluation [A] “Cone of Uncertainty” explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. Project Implementation

Project Implementation:

19 Project Execution Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the Project Management Plan . The deliverables are produced as [outcomes] from the processes performed as defined in the Project Management Plan and other frameworks that might be applicable to the type of project at hand. Project Implementation

Change Management:

20 The activities of Requirements Change Management include receiving the change requests from the stakeholders, recording the received change requests, analyzing and determining the desirability and process of implementation, implementation of the change request, quality assurance for the implementation and [evaluating] the change request. Requirements Management begins with the analysis and elicitation of the objectives and constraints of the organization. Requirements Management involves communication between the project team members and stakeholders, and adjustment to requirements changes throughout the course of the [program]. Change Management

Change Management:

21 Change Management http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Requirements_management

Evaluation:

22 Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results. It looks at original objectives, and at what is either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished. So evaluation can be Formative , that is taking place during the development of a concept or proposal, project or organization, with the intention of improving the value or effectiveness of the proposal, project, or organization. It can also be Assumptive , drawing lessons from a completed action or project or an organization at a later point in time or circumstance. Evaluation

Evaluation:

23 Purpose The main purpose of a program evaluation can be to "determine the quality of a program by formulating a judgment" An alternative view is that "projects, evaluators, and other stakeholders (including funders) will all have potentially different ideas about how best to evaluate a project since each may have a different definition of 'merit'. The core of the problem is thus about defining what is of value." From this perspective… There are two functions considering to the evaluation purpose Formative Evaluations provide the information on the improving a product or a process Summative Evaluations provide information of short-term effectiveness or long-term impact to deciding the adoption of a product or process. Evaluation

Questions & Answers:

Questions & Answers 24

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25 Thank You! The Advocacy Foundation 1735 Market Street, Suite 3750 Philadelphia, PA 19102 100 Edgewood Avenue, Suite 1690 Atlanta, GA 30303 (855) ADVOC8.0 (855) 238-6280 www.TheAdvocacyFoundation.org

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