Socialism in Europe and Russian Revolution

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The Russian Revolution -Key Concepts-

Times New Roman:

I. Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions Nicholas II became Tsar in 1884 Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God Revolution broke out in 1905 --Russo-Japanese War (1904)


II. The Revolution of 1905 The creation of a discontented working class Vast majority of workers concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow Help from the countryside: poor peasants No individual land ownership


II. Revolution of 1905 (cont) Russia industrialized on the backs of the peasants Tremendous historic land hunger among peasants Real winners of the 1905 Revolution: Middle Class --Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets) --Duma

The Russian Revolution:

Conservatism Continues: 1905-1917 Tsar paid no attention to the Duma Duma harassed and political parties suppressed Nicholas was personally a very weak man Tsar became increasingly remote as a ruler

I. Pre-Revolutionary Russia:

IV. Alexandra: The Power Behind the Throne Even more blindly committed to autocracy than her husband The influence of Rasputin over Alexandra Origins of Rasputin’s power Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy

II. The Revolution of 1905:

Alexis: Alexandra’s Son with Hemophilia

II. Revolution of 1905 (cont):

V. World War I: “The Last Straw” War revealed the ineptitude and arrogance of the country’s aristocratic elite The Russian “Steam Roller” Corrupt military leadership and contempt for ordinary Russian people Average peasant has very little invested in the War

Conservatism Continues: 1905-1917:

V. World War I (cont) Poorly supplied troops Result: Chaos and Disintegration of the Russian Army --Battle of Tannenberg (August, 1914) Spreading Discontent

IV. Alexandra: The Power Behind the Throne:

VI. The Collapse of the Imperial Government Nicholas leaves for the Front—September, 1915 Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason

Alexis: Alexandra’s Son with Hemophilia:

VI. The Collapse of the Imperial Government (cont) Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916 Refusal to receive assistance of the Russian Middle Class Complete mismanagement of the wartime economy

V. World War I: “The Last Straw”:

VII. The Two Revolutions of 1917 The March Revolution (March 12) The November Revolution (November 6)

V. World War I (cont):

VIII. The March Revolution Origins: Food riots and strikes Duma declared itself a Provisional Government on March12th Tsar abdicated on March 17 th Composition of the Provisional Government --Alexander Kerensky Very Popular Revolution The Petrograd Soviet --Order #1

VI. The Collapse of the Imperial Government:

IX. Soviet Political Ideology More radical and revolutionary than the Provisional Government Most influenced by Marxist socialism Emulated western socialism Two Factions -- “Mensheviks” -- “Bolsheviks”

VI. The Collapse of the Imperial Government (cont):

Founder of Bolshevism: Vladimir Lenin His Early Years --Exiled to Siberia in 1897 Committed to Class Struggle and Revolution Moved to London in 1902 and befriended Leon Trotsky What is to be Done? Tract

VII. The Two Revolutions of 1917:

X. Lenin (cont) Key role of the Party in the revolution -- “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” Bolsheviks split from the Russian Socialist Party in 1912 Character of the Bolshevik Party --Joseph Stalin -- Pravda

VIII. The March Revolution:

XI. Vacuum of Leadership in Russia Petrograd Soviet dominated by Mensheviks Failure of the Provisional Government Workers refusing to work and soldiers refusing to fight Peasants were expropriating the land outright Power was literally lying in the streets of Petrograd

IX. Soviet Political Ideology:

XII. Lenin Steps into This Vacuum Amnesty granted to all political prisoners in March of 1917 Lenin’s arrival in Petrograd A tremendously charismatic personality “Peace, Land, Bread” “All Power to the Soviets” Bolshevik party membership exploded Consolidation of Bolshevik power

Founder of Bolshevism: Vladimir Lenin:

XIII. The November Revolution The events of November 6 Council of People’s Commissars All private property of wealthy was abolished and divided among the peasantry Largest industrial enterprises nationalized

X. Lenin (cont):

XIII. November Revolution (cont) Political Police organized: CHEKA Revolutionary army created with Trotsky in charge -- “Red Army” Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party in March of 1918 The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk negotiated with the Germans Terms of the Treaty

XI. Vacuum of Leadership in Russia:

XIII. November Revolution (cont) Humiliating Treaty would be nullified since all of the west was on the verge of revolution Civil War fought between 1917-1920 -- “Reds” versus “Whites” Complete breakdown of Russian economy and society

XII. Lenin Steps into This Vacuum:

XIV. Interpreting the Russian Revolution The official Marxist Interpretation --The importance of a permanent international revolution Function of Russian History and Culture Imposed Revolution on an unwilling victim A Social Revolution

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