UV Visible Spectroscopy

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“UV Visible Spectroscopy” Dr. Paresh U. Patel M. Pharm., Ph. D. Department of Pharm. Chemistry Shree S.K. Patel College of Pharm. Edu. & Res., Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar, Kherva-382711 Dist: Mehsana, Gujarat. : 

“UV Visible Spectroscopy” Dr. Paresh U. Patel M. Pharm., Ph. D. Department of Pharm. Chemistry Shree S.K. Patel College of Pharm. Edu. & Res., Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar, Kherva-382711 Dist: Mehsana, Gujarat.

What is spectroscopy? Spectrum + Scopies “When a beam of light is allowed to pass through a prism or grating, it will dispersed into seven colors from red to violet and the set of colors or band produced is called spectrum” + Examination “Spectroscopy is the branch of the science dealt with the study of interaction of Electro Magnetic Radiation (EMR) with matter” So the spectroscopy means examination of spectrum. From the type of radiation, which is absorbed, we can get idea about the nature (type) of the compound and from the amount of the radiation, which is absorbed, we can get idea about the concentration (amount) of the substance. So the spectroscopy is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis. : 

What is spectroscopy? Spectrum + Scopies “When a beam of light is allowed to pass through a prism or grating, it will dispersed into seven colors from red to violet and the set of colors or band produced is called spectrum” + Examination “Spectroscopy is the branch of the science dealt with the study of interaction of E lectro M agnetic R adiation (EMR) with matter” So the spectroscopy means examination of spectrum. From the type of radiation, which is absorbed, we can get idea about the nature (type) of the compound and from the amount of the radiation, which is absorbed, we can get idea about the concentration (amount) of the substance. So the spectroscopy is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Slide 3: 

When a beam of light is passed through a transparent cell containing a solution of an absorbing substance, reduction of the intensity of the light may occur. This is due to 1) Reflection at the inner and outer surfaces of the cell 2)      Scattered by the particles present in the solution 3)      Absorption of the light by the molecules in the solution Interaction of EMR with matter

Classification of Spectroscopy: 1)      Absorption Spectroscopy: the type and amount of the radiation, which is absorbed depend upon the structure of the molecules and the numbers of molecules interacting with the radiation. The study of these dependencies is called absorption spectroscopy. (UV, IR, NMR, X-Ray, ESR) 2)      Emission spectroscopy: if sufficient energy gets impinged upon a sample, the outer electrons in the species will be raised from their stable ground state to higher energy level (unstable in nature). These excited species rapidly emits a photon and return to their ground stable energy level. The type and amount of radiation, which is emitted, is studied, this type of spectroscopy is called emission spectroscopy. (AES, MES, Fluorimetry) 3)      Scattering spectroscopy: if the incoming radiation strikes with the solid particles suspended in the solution, the light transmitted at an angle other than 1800 from the incident light. This spectroscopy is called scattering spectroscopy. (turbidimetry, nephelometry) : 

Classification of Spectroscopy: 1)      Absorption Spectroscopy: the type and amount of the radiation, which is absorbed depend upon the structure of the molecules and the numbers of molecules interacting with the radiation. The study of these dependencies is called absorption spectroscopy. (UV, IR, NMR, X-Ray, ESR) 2)      Emission spectroscopy: if sufficient energy gets impinged upon a sample, the outer electrons in the species will be raised from their stable ground state to higher energy level (unstable in nature). These excited species rapidly emits a photon and return to their ground stable energy level. The type and amount of radiation, which is emitted, is studied, this type of spectroscopy is called emission spectroscopy. (AES, MES, Fluorimetry) 3)      Scattering spectroscopy: if the incoming radiation strikes with the solid particles suspended in the solution, the light transmitted at an angle other than 180 0 from the incident light. This spectroscopy is called scattering spectroscopy. (turbidimetry, nephelometry)

What is EMR? -         EMR is a form of energy that is transmitted through space at an enormous velocity -         It can travel in space with the same speed at that of light. -         As the name implies an EMR is an alternating electrical and associated magnetic force field in space (It contains electrical and magnetic components) -         The two components oscillate in planes perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the radiation. -         EMR consist of a stream of discrete packets (particles) of pure energy, which is called photons or quanta. -         The energy of photon is proportional to the frequency E = hυ where E= Energy of photons, h= plank’s constant (6.624 x 10-27 erg. Sec) and υ=frequency of radiation in cycles/second : 

What is EMR? -         EMR is a form of energy that is transmitted through space at an enormous velocity -         It can travel in space with the same speed at that of light. -         As the name implies an EMR is an alternating electrical and associated magnetic force field in space (It contains electrical and magnetic components) -         The two components oscillate in planes perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the radiation. -         EMR consist of a stream of discrete packets (particles) of pure energy, which is called photons or quanta. -         The energy of photon is proportional to the frequency E = hυ where E= Energy of photons, h= plank’s constant (6.624 x 10 -27 erg. Sec) and υ=frequency of radiation in cycles/second

- Wavelength (λ): it is the distance between two successive maxima on an electromagnetic wave. (m, cm, mm, μm, nm, and A0) - Frequency (υ): is the numbers of waves passing through a given point in unit time. (T-1, sec-1, cycles/second, hertz, fresnel) - Wave numbers (ΰ): is the numbers of waves per centimeter in vacuum. ( cm-1) - Velocity (V): is the product of wavelength and frequency (λ X υ =V) (cm/sec, m/sec) : 

- Wavelength (λ): it is the distance between two successive maxima on an electromagnetic wave. (m, cm, mm, μm, nm, and A 0 ) - Frequency (υ): is the numbers of waves passing through a given point in unit time. (T -1 , sec -1 , cycles/second, hertz, fresnel) - Wave numbers (ΰ): is the numbers of waves per centimeter in vacuum. ( cm -1 ) - Velocity (V): is the product of wavelength and frequency (λ X υ =V) (cm/sec, m/sec)

Slide 7: 

Classification of EMR : EMR is arbitrarily classified in to different regions according to wavelength.

Energy associated with the molecules: 1)      The molecule as a whole may move this is called translation and the energy associate with this movement is called transnational energy. (Etrans) 2)      The part of the molecules, that is atom or groups of atoms, may move with respect to each other. This motion is called vibration and the associated energy is called vibrational energy. (Evib) 3)      The molecule may rotate about an axis. And such rotation is characterized by the rotational energy. (Erot) 4)      Besides these modes of movements, the molecule possesses an electronic configuration and the energy associated with this configuration is called electronic energy. (E ele) E total = E trans + E vib + E rot + E ele. : 

Energy associated with the molecules: 1)      The molecule as a whole may move this is called translation and the energy associate with this movement is called transnational energy. (E trans ) 2)      The part of the molecules, that is atom or groups of atoms, may move with respect to each other. This motion is called vibration and the associated energy is called vibrational energy. (E vib ) 3)      The molecule may rotate about an axis. And such rotation is characterized by the rotational energy. (E rot ) 4)      Besides these modes of movements, the molecule possesses an electronic configuration and the energy associated with this configuration is called electronic energy. (E ele ) E total = E trans + E vib + E rot + E ele.

Theoretical principles If a molecule is allowed to interact with the EMR of a proper frequency, the energy of the molecule is raised from one level to a higher one; we say that absorption of radiation takes place. In order for absorption to occur, the energy difference between the two energy level must be equal to the energy of the photon absorbed E2 – E1 = hυ where E1 is energy of lower level and E2 is the energy of upper level -         This energy jump from one level to another is called transition -         The graph of the light absorption against the frequency is called absorption spectra. -         Visible and Ultraviolet light provides enough energy for electronic transition there for called electronic spectra. : 

Theoretical principles If a molecule is allowed to interact with the EMR of a proper frequency, the energy of the molecule is raised from one level to a higher one; we say that absorption of radiation takes place. In order for absorption to occur, the energy difference between the two energy level must be equal to the energy of the photon absorbed E2 – E1 = hυ where E1 is energy of lower level and E2 is the energy of upper level -         This energy jump from one level to another is called transition -         The graph of the light absorption against the frequency is called absorption spectra. -         Visible and Ultraviolet light provides enough energy for electronic transition there for called electronic spectra.

On absorption of energy by a molecule in the ultraviolet region, changes are produced in the electronic energy of the molecule due to transitions of valence electrons in the molecule. : 

On absorption of energy by a molecule in the ultraviolet region, changes are produced in the electronic energy of the molecule due to transitions of valence electrons in the molecule. E 6* Anti-bonding π* Anti- bonding n Non- bonding π Bonding 6 Bonding

Types of transitions: 1) 6 6*: A transitions of electrons from a bonding sigma orbital to the higher energy antibonding orbitals. ( eg. Alkane). Sigma bonds are, in general, very strong, there fore they require high energy for the transitions and this transitions requires very short wavelength (near about 150 nm) 2) n 6*: This transition involves saturated compounds with one hetero atom with unshared pair of electrons (n electrons). Corresponding band appears at 180-200 nm. 3) π π*: This transition is available in compounds with un-saturation (eg. Alkene). Corresponding band appears at 170-190 nm. 4) n π*: This type of transitions are shown by the unsaturated molecules containing one or more hetero atoms. (O, N, S): 

Types of transitions: 1) 6 6*: A transitions of electrons from a bonding sigma orbital to the higher energy antibonding orbitals. ( eg. Alkane). Sigma bonds are, in general, very strong, there fore they require high energy for the transitions and this transitions requires very short wavelength (near about 150 nm) 2) n 6*: This transition involves saturated compounds with one hetero atom with unshared pair of electrons (n electrons). Corresponding band appears at 180-200 nm. 3) π π*: This transition is available in compounds with un-saturation (eg. Alkene). Corresponding band appears at 170-190 nm. 4) n π*: This type of transitions are shown by the unsaturated molecules containing one or more hetero atoms. (O, N, S)

Slide 12: 

5) Conjugated system: In conjugated dienes, the π orbitals of the separate alkene group combine to give new orbitals i.e. the two new bonding orbitals which are designated π1 and π2 and new two anti-bonding orbitals designated as π3* and π4*. So for the π2 π3* transition very low energy is requires corresponding to the higher wavelength.

Some important terms: 1)      Chromophore: It is a group of molecules, which is responsible for the absorption of light by molecules. It is conjugated dienes. It is minimum structural requirements for the absorption of radiation in UV range. 2)      Auxochrome: It is a saturated group containing unshared electrons which when attached to a Chromophore changes both intensity as well as the wavelength of the absorption maxima. e.g. OH, NH2, Cl etc. 3)      λ-max: It is a wavelength at which there is a maximum absorption or absorption intensity. It is a physical constant and characteristic of structure and so useful for identification of compounds. It is independent of concentration. 4)      Bathochromic shift: The shifting of absorption to a longer wavelength due to substitution or solvent is called as bathochromic shift. It is also called as Red shift. e.g., λmax of Ascorbic acid=243nm, λmax of Ascorbic acid in alkali medium=299nm.: 

Some important terms: 1)      Chromophore: It is a group of molecules, which is responsible for the absorption of light by molecules. It is conjugated dienes. It is minimum structural requirements for the absorption of radiation in UV range. 2)      Auxochrome: It is a saturated group containing unshared electrons which when attached to a Chromophore changes both intensity as well as the wavelength of the absorption maxima. e.g. OH, NH2, Cl etc. 3)      λ-max: It is a wavelength at which there is a maximum absorption or absorption intensity. It is a physical constant and characteristic of structure and so useful for identification of compounds. It is independent of concentration. 4)      Bathochromic shift: The shifting of absorption to a longer wavelength due to substitution or solvent is called as bathochromic shift. It is also called as Red shift. e.g., λ max of Ascorbic acid=243nm, λ max of Ascorbic acid in alkali medium=299nm.

5)  Hypsochromic shift (Blue shift): Shifting of λmax to lower value or left hand side due to substitution, solvent, pH etc is called as Hypsochromic shift. e.g. λmax of Phenol in basic media=297nm, λmax of Phenol in acidic media=277nm. 6)      Hyperchromism: Increase in absorption intensity (e) due to solvent, pH or some other factors called hyperchromic effect. 7)      Hypochromism : Decrease in absorption intensity due to substituent, solvent, pH etc. called hypochromic effect. 8)      A1%1cm (A one percent one centimeter): Is the absorbance of the solution having concentration 1 gm per 100 ml of the solution. 9)      Molar absorptivity (ε): Is the absorbance of the solution having concentration gm.mol.weight/1000 ml of the solution. [ε = (A1%1cm X Mol. Wt.)/10] 10)      Transmittance (T): is the ratio of IT/I0 and % transmittance (%T) is given by %T=100 IT/I0 : 

5) Hypsochromic shift (Blue shift): Shifting of λ max to lower value or left hand side due to substitution, solvent, pH etc is called as Hypsochromic shift. e.g. λ max of Phenol in basic media=297nm, λ max of Phenol in acidic media=277nm. 6)      Hyperchromism: Increase in absorption intensity ( e ) due to solvent, pH or some other factors called hyperchromic effect. 7)      Hypochromism : Decrease in absorption intensity due to substituent, solvent, pH etc. called hypochromic effect. 8)      A 1% 1cm (A one percent one centimeter): Is the absorbance of the solution having concentration 1 gm per 100 ml of the solution. 9)      Molar absorptivity (ε): Is the absorbance of the solution having concentration gm.mol.weight/1000 ml of the solution. [ε = (A 1% 1cm X Mol. Wt.)/10] 10)      Transmittance (T): is the ratio of I T /I 0 and % transmittance (%T) is given by %T=100 I T /I 0

1)      Absorbance (A): Is the degree of absorption of light by a medium through which the energy passes. It is expressed as the logarithm of the ratio of light transmitted through a pure solvent to the intensity of light transmitted through the medium. It is the area under the curve. A= log I0/IT A= log I0 - log IT A=2- log % T Absorption Spectra The graph of the light absorption against the frequency is called absorption spectra. It is characterized by 1) λ-max:- Position of spectra 2) Intensity of absorbance:- the amount of the radiation absorbed by the molecule. 1)      Factors affecting the position of the spectrum (λ-max) A)    Structural factors i)        Substitution: Placing a substituent on a Chromophore may produce change in λ-max by two mechanisms: introduction of an entirely new transition and/or shifting the wavelength of existing transitions. E.g. each alkyl substituent produce 5 nm bathochromic shift. : 

1)      Absorbance (A): Is the degree of absorption of light by a medium through which the energy passes. It is expressed as the logarithm of the ratio of light transmitted through a pure solvent to the intensity of light transmitted through the medium. It is the area under the curve. A= log I 0 /I T A= log I 0 - log I T A=2- log % T Absorption Spectra The graph of the light absorption against the frequency is called absorption spectra. It is characterized by 1) λ-max:- Position of spectra 2) Intensity of absorbance:- the amount of the radiation absorbed by the molecule. 1)      Factors affecting the position of the spectrum (λ-max) A)    Structural factors i)        Substitution: Placing a substituent on a Chromophore may produce change in λ-max by two mechanisms: introduction of an entirely new transition and/or shifting the wavelength of existing transitions. E.g. each alkyl substituent produce 5 nm bathochromic shift.

ii)       Solvent: the solvent effect arises because solvation is frequently different for the ground and excited states. If the ground state is solvated more strongly than the excited state, the energy difference between the levels is increased. The increase in energy difference is reflected in a shift of the absorbance to shorter wavelengths. iii)       Geometry: e.g. stilbene. Trans-stilbene absorbs at a longer wavelength than cis-stilbene due to steric effects. Co-planarity is needed for the most effective overlap of the π-orbitals. The cis-isomer is forced in to a non planar conformation due to steric effects. The cis isomer are twisted slightly out of plane by steric interactions so that the degree of conjugation in the π system is slightly less than the trans isomers, resulting in greater energy for the transitions. A)    Non Structural factors i)        PH: e.g. Phenolphthalein: in alkaline medium it is pink and in the acidic medium it is colorless: 

ii)       Solvent: the solvent effect arises because solvation is frequently different for the ground and excited states. If the ground state is solvated more strongly than the excited state, the energy difference between the levels is increased. The increase in energy difference is reflected in a shift of the absorbance to shorter wavelengths. iii)       Geometry: e.g. stilbene. Trans-stilbene absorbs at a longer wavelength than cis-stilbene due to steric effects. Co-planarity is needed for the most effective overlap of the π-orbitals. The cis-isomer is forced in to a non planar conformation due to steric effects. The cis isomer are twisted slightly out of plane by steric interactions so that the degree of conjugation in the π system is slightly less than the trans isomers, resulting in greater energy for the transitions. A)    Non Structural factors i)        PH: e.g. Phenolphthalein: in alkaline medium it is pink and in the acidic medium it is colorless

i)        Temperature: Temperature provides more energy to ground state. As a result energy required for excitation will be less, so there is bathochromic shift. 2)      Factors affecting the intensity of absorption of radiation. i)        Thickness of the medium: Lambert’s law: “when a beam of monochromatic light is allowed to pass through a transparent medium, the rate of decrease of intensity with the thickness of medium is directly proportional to the intensity of incident radiation”. It gives relationship between absorbance and the thickness of the medium. ii)       Concentration of absorbing solute: Beer’s law: “when a beam of monochromatic light is allowed to pass through a transparent medium, the rate of decrease of intensity with the concentration of absorbing solute is directly proportional to the intensity of incident radiation”. It gives relationship between absorbance and the concentration of the medium. A = a b c (Fundamental equations of spectroscopy) : 

i)        Temperature: Temperature provides more energy to ground state. As a result energy required for excitation will be less, so there is bathochromic shift. 2)      Factors affecting the intensity of absorption of radiation. i)        Thickness of the medium: Lambert’s law: “when a beam of monochromatic light is allowed to pass through a transparent medium, the rate of decrease of intensity with the thickness of medium is directly proportional to the intensity of incident radiation”. It gives relationship between absorbance and the thickness of the medium. ii)       Concentration of absorbing solute: Beer’s law: “when a beam of monochromatic light is allowed to pass through a transparent medium, the rate of decrease of intensity with the concentration of absorbing solute is directly proportional to the intensity of incident radiation”. It gives relationship between absorbance and the concentration of the medium. A = a b c (Fundamental equations of spectroscopy)

Deviation from the Beer’s curve. (Errors in spectrophotometric measurement) Errors may arise from instrumental of from chemical factors. Instrumental errors can arise from several sources. Noise, fluctuation in light source. The ideal absorbance range for most measurement is in the range of 0.2 to 0.8. The calibration curve is relatively linear in this range. Other factor includes Spectral Slit Width (SSW). As slit width is increased, the fine structure of the absorption band is lost as the incident light is no more monochromatic. Generally, fast scan rates tend to distort spectra, altering the positions of both maxima and minima as well as diminishing peak intensities. This introduces both qualitative and quantitative errors in the measurement. : 

Deviation from the Beer’s curve. (Errors in spectrophotometric measurement) Errors may arise from instrumental of from chemical factors. Instrumental errors can arise from several sources. Noise, fluctuation in light source. The ideal absorbance range for most measurement is in the range of 0.2 to 0.8. The calibration curve is relatively linear in this range. Other factor includes Spectral Slit Width (SSW). As slit width is increased, the fine structure of the absorption band is lost as the incident light is no more monochromatic. Generally, fast scan rates tend to distort spectra, altering the positions of both maxima and minima as well as diminishing peak intensities. This introduces both qualitative and quantitative errors in the measurement.

A numbers of chemical factors may also produce errors in the analysis. Solute-solute interaction, e.g. aggregation, precipitation, dimerization etc. Ionization or even complexation of the analyte in solution can also lead to apparent deviation from the Beer’s curve. Fluorescence from absorbing species in solution may also contribute to interference.: 

A numbers of chemical factors may also produce errors in the analysis. Solute-solute interaction, e.g. aggregation, precipitation, dimerization etc. Ionization or even complexation of the analyte in solution can also lead to apparent deviation from the Beer’s curve. Fluorescence from absorbing species in solution may also contribute to interference.

INSTRUMENTATION : 

INSTRUMENTATION Light source Slit Monochromator Sample Holder Detector Display Light Source: (source of electromagnetic radiation): The tungsten filament lamp is a satisfactory light source for the region 350 to 2000 nm. It consists of a tungsten filament contained in a glass envelope. The most convenient light source for UV radiation is discharge lamp. Generally deuterium discharge lamp is used. It is consisting of deuterium-filled silica envelope. It gives radiation from 185 to 380 nm.

2) Slit: (Radiation intensity controlling device): Enough light must pass through the sample to elicit a measurable response from the detector. 3) Monochromator: (wavelength selecting device). It converts polychromatic light in monochromatic light (light having one wavelength). a) Filters: Glass filters are pieces of colored glass, which transmit limited wavelength ranges of the spectrum. The color is produced by incorporating oxides of such metals. : 

2) Slit: (Radiation intensity controlling device): Enough light must pass through the sample to elicit a measurable response from the detector. 3) Monochromator: (wavelength selecting device). It converts polychromatic light in monochromatic light (light having one wavelength). a) Filters: Glass filters are pieces of colored glass, which transmit limited wavelength ranges of the spectrum. The color is produced by incorporating oxides of such metals.

b) Prisms: When a beam of light passes through a prism, it is bent or refracted. The amount of deviation is dependent on the wavelength. The prism is made up of quartz for use in the UV light, since glass absorbs wavelengths shorter than about 330 nm. Glass prism are preferable for the visible region of the spectrum, as the dispersion is much greater than that obtained with quartz. c) Grating: Most modern UV spectrophotometer uses diffraction grating as a Monochromator. It consisting of a very large number of equispaced lines (200-2000 per mm) ruled on a glass plate. They can be used either as transmission grating or when aluminized, as reflection grating. : 

b) Prisms: When a beam of light passes through a prism, it is bent or refracted. The amount of deviation is dependent on the wavelength. The prism is made up of quartz for use in the UV light, since glass absorbs wavelengths shorter than about 330 nm. Glass prism are preferable for the visible region of the spectrum, as the dispersion is much greater than that obtained with quartz. c) Grating: Most modern UV spectrophotometer uses diffraction grating as a Monochromator. It consisting of a very large number of equispaced lines (200-2000 per mm) ruled on a glass plate. They can be used either as transmission grating or when aluminized, as reflection grating.

4) Sample Holder: The sample holder is known as cuvettes. Cuvettes must be transparent to the light, so the glass cells are used in the visible region and quartz or silica cells are used in the UV region. The cells used in the UV spectrophotometers are usually 1 cm in path length but cells are available from 0.1 cm to 10 cm or more. 5) Detectors (Radiation measuring device): It is also known as photocell. They convert radiation energy in electrical energy. For the determination of substances by spectrophotometric techniques, precise determinations of the light intensities are necessary. Photoelectric detectors are most frequently used for this purpose. They must be employed in such a way that they give a response linearly proportional to the light input and they must not suffer from drift or fatigue.: 

4) Sample Holder: The sample holder is known as cuvettes. Cuvettes must be transparent to the light, so the glass cells are used in the visible region and quartz or silica cells are used in the UV region. The cells used in the UV spectrophotometers are usually 1 cm in path length but cells are available from 0.1 cm to 10 cm or more. 5) Detectors (Radiation measuring device): It is also known as photocell. They convert radiation energy in electrical energy. For the determination of substances by spectrophotometric techniques, precise determinations of the light intensities are necessary. Photoelectric detectors are most frequently used for this purpose. They must be employed in such a way that they give a response linearly proportional to the light input and they must not suffer from drift or fatigue.

a)      Barrier-layer photocell: : 

a)      Barrier-layer photocell:

It one of the simplest detectors, which has the advantage that it requires no power supply but gives a current, which is directly proportional to the light intensity. It is consists of a metallic plate, usually copper or iron, upon which is deposited a layer of selenium. An extremely thin transparent layer of a good conducting metal, e.g. silver, platinum or copper, is formed over the selenium to act as one electrode, the metallic plate acting as the other. Light passes through the semitransparent silver layer causes release of an electron, which migrates, to the collector. The electron accumulating on the collector resulting in a potential difference between the base and collector, which can be measured by a low resistance galvanometer circuit. The useful working range of selenium photocell is 380-780 nm. Their lack of sensitivity compared to phototube and photo multiplier tube, restricts their use to the cheapest colorimeters and flame photometers. : 

It one of the simplest detectors, which has the advantage that it requires no power supply but gives a current, which is directly proportional to the light intensity. It is consists of a metallic plate, usually copper or iron, upon which is deposited a layer of selenium. An extremely thin transparent layer of a good conducting metal, e.g. silver, platinum or copper, is formed over the selenium to act as one electrode, the metallic plate acting as the other. Light passes through the semitransparent silver layer causes release of an electron, which migrates, to the collector. The electron accumulating on the collector resulting in a potential difference between the base and collector, which can be measured by a low resistance galvanometer circuit. The useful working range of selenium photocell is 380-780 nm. Their lack of sensitivity compared to phototube and photo multiplier tube, restricts their use to the cheapest colorimeters and flame photometers.

It consists of an anode and a cathode sealed in an evacuated glass tube, which may have a quartz or silica window for UV measurement. : 

It consists of an anode and a cathode sealed in an evacuated glass tube, which may have a quartz or silica window for UV measurement. b) Photo emissive tube:

The cathode is coated with a layer of light sensitive material that emits electrons upon absorption of photons. A power supply maintains the anode positive with respect to the cathode so that the photoelectrons are collected at the anode. This current is directly proportional to the light intensity. Phototubes are available for use over the entire UV/visible region of the spectrum, but no single tube covers the entire range satisfactorily. Therefore many instruments with phototube detectors employ interchangeable blue and red sensitive phototube in order to provide sufficient sensitivity over the entire spectrum. : 

The cathode is coated with a layer of light sensitive material that emits electrons upon absorption of photons. A power supply maintains the anode positive with respect to the cathode so that the photoelectrons are collected at the anode. This current is directly proportional to the light intensity. Phototubes are available for use over the entire UV/visible region of the spectrum, but no single tube covers the entire range satisfactorily. Therefore many instruments with phototube detectors employ interchangeable blue and red sensitive phototube in order to provide sufficient sensitivity over the entire spectrum.

c) Photo multiplier tube: : 

c) Photo multiplier tube: It is very sensitive detectors with very short response times. It contains a photo cathode and a series of dynodes, which are also photosensitive.

A higher successive potential is maintained between each dynodes. A photoelectrons released from the photo cathode is accelerated toward the first dynode by their voltage difference, where it strikes to release several electrons. The secondary electrons are then accelerated toward the second dynode where the process repeats. In this way multiplication of the electrons can be achieved. The current from phototubes and photo multiplier tubes never falls to zero. A small residual current called dark current is produced, due to long exposure of the light. : 

A higher successive potential is maintained between each dynodes. A photoelectrons released from the photo cathode is accelerated toward the first dynode by their voltage difference, where it strikes to release several electrons. The secondary electrons are then accelerated toward the second dynode where the process repeats. In this way multiplication of the electrons can be achieved. The current from phototubes and photo multiplier tubes never falls to zero. A small residual current called dark current is produced, due to long exposure of the light.

6) Display (Read out meter): The signal from the detector is normally proportional to the intensity of light, and after amplification may be displayed as % T or after passing through a logarithmic conversion circuit as absorbance (Log 1/T) TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS: Instruments for measuring the absorption of light may be of the single beam or double beam type. In a single beam instrument, light from the sources passes through a filter and then through the sample and in to the detector. The signal from the detector is proportional to the intensity of the light beam striking it. To make a measurement of absorbance using a manually controlled single-beam instrument, the Monochromator is adjusted to the required wavelength and the appropriate lamp and photocell are selected by means of switches. : 

6) Display (Read out meter): The signal from the detector is normally proportional to the intensity of light, and after amplification may be displayed as % T or after passing through a logarithmic conversion circuit as absorbance (Log 1/T) TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS: Instruments for measuring the absorption of light may be of the single beam or double beam type. In a single beam instrument, light from the sources passes through a filter and then through the sample and in to the detector. The signal from the detector is proportional to the intensity of the light beam striking it. To make a measurement of absorbance using a manually controlled single-beam instrument, the Monochromator is adjusted to the required wavelength and the appropriate lamp and photocell are selected by means of switches.

The first step is to close a shutter in the path (or adjust dark filter) and adjust 0 %T. The second step is to open the shutter and place the cell containing only the solvent in the light beam and adjust the scale on 100 % T (equivalent to 0 absorbance). The third step is to place the sample cell in the light path and measure the intensity IT or its equivalent absorbance. In double beam spectrophotometer, the monochromatic light is split by the beam splitter in to two equal intensity light beam, which are directed alternatively in rapid succession through a cell containing the sample and one containing the solvent only. This instrument measures the ratio of the intensity of the beam coming through the sample and through the solvent. Changes in the intensity of the source affect both beams proportionately so the ratio of their intensities is not altered. Therefore, a high degree of stability in the light source is not required in these instruments. Difference in the lamp out put, optical system throughput, and detector sensitivity with wavelength also affect both beams in the same way. : 

The first step is to close a shutter in the path (or adjust dark filter) and adjust 0 %T. The second step is to open the shutter and place the cell containing only the solvent in the light beam and adjust the scale on 100 % T (equivalent to 0 absorbance). The third step is to place the sample cell in the light path and measure the intensity I T or its equivalent absorbance. In double beam spectrophotometer, the monochromatic light is split by the beam splitter in to two equal intensity light beam, which are directed alternatively in rapid succession through a cell containing the sample and one containing the solvent only. This instrument measures the ratio of the intensity of the beam coming through the sample and through the solvent. Changes in the intensity of the source affect both beams proportionately so the ratio of their intensities is not altered. Therefore, a high degree of stability in the light source is not required in these instruments. Difference in the lamp out put, optical system throughput, and detector sensitivity with wavelength also affect both beams in the same way.

APPLICATIONS: 1. Qualitative Analysis: The UV spectra of most compounds are of limited value for qualitative analysis as compared to IR and Mass spectra. Qualitative analytical use of UV spectra has largely involved λ-max and absorptivities, occasionally includes absorption minima. In pharmacopoeias, absorption ratios have found use in identity tests, and are referred to as Q-values in USP. 2. Quantitative Analysis: UV spectroscopy is perhaps the most widely used spectroscopic techniques for the quantitative analysis of chemical substances as pure materials and as components of dosage forms. : 

APPLICATIONS: 1. Qualitative Analysis: The UV spectra of most compounds are of limited value for qualitative analysis as compared to IR and Mass spectra. Qualitative analytical use of UV spectra has largely involved λ-max and absorptivities, occasionally includes absorption minima. In pharmacopoeias, absorption ratios have found use in identity tests, and are referred to as Q-values in USP. 2. Quantitative Analysis: UV spectroscopy is perhaps the most widely used spectroscopic techniques for the quantitative analysis of chemical substances as pure materials and as components of dosage forms.

A)    Single component Analysis: Direct Analysis: Essentially all compounds containing conjugated double bond or aromatic rings, and many inorganic species absorb light in the UV-visible regions. In these techniques the substance to be determined is dissolved in suitable solvent and diluted to the required concentration by appropriate dilutions and absorbance is measured. Indirect Analysis: (Analysis after addition of some reagent) indirect methods are based on the conversion of the analyte by a chemical reagent that has different spectral properties. Chemical derivatization may be adopted for any of the several reasons. 1) If the analyte absorbs weakly in the UV region. 2) The interference form irrelevant absorption may be avoided by converting the analyte to a derivative, which absorbs in the visible region, where irrelevant absorption is negligible. 3) This technique can be used to improve the selectivity of the assay in presence of other UV radiation absorbing substance. 4) Cost. : 

A)    Single component Analysis: Direct Analysis: Essentially all compounds containing conjugated double bond or aromatic rings, and many inorganic species absorb light in the UV-visible regions. In these techniques the substance to be determined is dissolved in suitable solvent and diluted to the required concentration by appropriate dilutions and absorbance is measured. Indirect Analysis: (Analysis after addition of some reagent) indirect methods are based on the conversion of the analyte by a chemical reagent that has different spectral properties. Chemical derivatization may be adopted for any of the several reasons. 1) If the analyte absorbs weakly in the UV region. 2) The interference form irrelevant absorption may be avoided by converting the analyte to a derivative, which absorbs in the visible region, where irrelevant absorption is negligible. 3) This technique can be used to improve the selectivity of the assay in presence of other UV radiation absorbing substance. 4) Cost.

Methods of calculating concentration in single component analysis ·        By using the relationship: A = a b c ·        By using the formula: Cu = (Au/As) X Cs ·        By using the equations: Y = mX + C ·        By using the Beer’s curve   A) Multi component Analysis: a) Simultaneous Equations method: If a sample contains two absorbing drugs (X and Y) each of which absorbs at the λ-max of the other (λ1 and λ2), it may be possible to determine both the drugs by the simultaneous equations method. Criteria for obtaining maximum precision, below mentioned ratio should lie out side the range 0.1-2.0 (A2/A1) / (aX2/aX1) and (aY2/aY1) / (A2/A1) : 

Methods of calculating concentration in single component analysis · By using the relationship: A = a b c · By using the formula: Cu = (Au/As) X Cs · By using the equations: Y = mX + C · By using the Beer’s curve A) Multi component Analysis: a) Simultaneous Equations method: If a sample contains two absorbing drugs (X and Y) each of which absorbs at the λ-max of the other (λ1 and λ2), it may be possible to determine both the drugs by the simultaneous equations method. Criteria for obtaining maximum precision, below mentioned ratio should lie out side the range 0.1-2.0 (A2/A1) / (aX2/aX1) and (aY2/aY1) / (A2/A1)

The information required is ·        The absorptivities of X at λ1 and λ2, aX1 and aX2 ·        The absorptivities of Y at λ1 and λ2, aY1 and aY2 ·        The absorbances of the diluted sample at λ1 and λ2, A1 and A2 Let Cx and Cy be the concentration of X and Y respectively in the sample The absorbance of the mixture is the sum of the individual absorbances of X and Y At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy (1) At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy (2) Multiply the equation (1) with aX2 and (2) with aX1 A1 aX2 = aX1 Cx aX2 + aY1 Cy aX2 (3) A2 aX1 = aX2 Cx aX1+ aY2 Cy aX1 (4) : 

The information required is · The absorptivities of X at λ1 and λ2, aX1 and aX2 · The absorptivities of Y at λ1 and λ2, aY1 and aY2 · The absorbances of the diluted sample at λ1 and λ2, A1 and A2 Let Cx and Cy be the concentration of X and Y respectively in the sample The absorbance of the mixture is the sum of the individual absorbances of X and Y At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy (1) At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy (2) Multiply the equation (1) with aX2 and (2) with aX1 A1 aX2 = aX1 Cx aX2 + aY1 Cy aX2 (3) A2 aX1 = aX2 Cx aX1+ aY2 Cy aX1 (4)

A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = aY1 Cy aX2 - aY2 Cy aX1 A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = Cy (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) Cy = (A1 aX2 - A2 aX1) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) (5) Same way we can derive Cx = (A2 aY1 – A1 aY2) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) (6) Equations 5 and 6 are known as simultaneous equations and by solving these simultaneous equations we can determine the concentration of X and Y in the sample. : 

A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = aY1 Cy aX2 - aY2 Cy aX1 A1 aX2 - A2 aX1 = Cy (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) Cy = (A1 aX2 - A2 aX1) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) (5) Same way we can derive Cx = (A2 aY1 – A1 aY2) / (aY1 aX2 - aY2 aX1) (6) Equations 5 and 6 are known as simultaneous equations and by solving these simultaneous equations we can determine the concentration of X and Y in the sample.

b) Q-Absorbance ratio method The absorbance ratio method is a modification of the simultaneous equations procedure. It depends on the property that, for a substance, which obeys Beer’s law at all wavelength, the ratio of absorbances at any two wavelengths is a constant value independent of concentration or path length. In the quantitative assay of two components in admixture by the absorbance ratio method, absorbances are measured at two wavelengths, one being the λ-max of one of the components (λ2) and other being a wavelength of equal absorptivity of two components (λ1), i.e. an iso-absorptive point. At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy (1) At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy (2) : 

b) Q-Absorbance ratio method The absorbance ratio method is a modification of the simultaneous equations procedure. It depends on the property that, for a substance, which obeys Beer’s law at all wavelength, the ratio of absorbances at any two wavelengths is a constant value independent of concentration or path length. In the quantitative assay of two components in admixture by the absorbance ratio method, absorbances are measured at two wavelengths, one being the λ-max of one of the components (λ2) and other being a wavelength of equal absorptivity of two components (λ1), i.e. an iso-absorptive point. At λ1 A1 = aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy (1) At λ2 A2 = aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy (2)

Now divide (2) with (1) A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy) (aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy) Divide each term with (Cx + Cy) A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) (Cx + Cy) (aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) Put Fx = Cx / (Cx + Cy) and Fy = Cy / (Cx + Cy) A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 Fy] / [aX1 Fx + aY1Fy] Where Fx is the fraction of X and Fy is the fraction of Y i.e. Fy = 1-Fx There fore A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 (1-Fx)] / [aX1 Fx + aY1(1-Fx)] = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / [aX1 Fx + aY1 – aY1Fx] : 

Now divide (2) with (1) A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy) (aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy) Divide each term with (Cx + Cy) A2/A1 = (aX2* Cx + aY2* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) (Cx + Cy) (aX1* Cx + aY1* Cy) / (Cx + Cy) Put Fx = Cx / (Cx + Cy) and Fy = Cy / (Cx + Cy) A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 Fy] / [aX1 Fx + aY1Fy] Where Fx is the fraction of X and Fy is the fraction of Y i.e. Fy = 1-Fx There fore A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 (1-Fx)] / [aX1 Fx + aY1(1-Fx)] = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / [aX1 Fx + aY1 – aY1Fx]

At iso-absorptive point aX1 = aY1 and Cx = Cy There fore A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / aX1 = (aX2 Fx/ aX1) + (aY2/ aX1) –( aY2Fx/ aX1) Let Qx = aX2/aX1 , Qy = aY2/aY1 and absorption ratio Qm = A2/A1 Qm = Fx Qx + Qy - Fx Qy = Fx (Qx-Qy) + Qy Fx = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) (3) From the equations (1) A1 = aX1 (Cx + Cy) there fore Cx + Cy = A1 / aX1 There fore Cx = (A1/aX1) – Cy (4) From the equation (3) Cx / (Cx + Cy) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) There fore Cx / (A1 / aX1) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) There fore Cx = [(Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy)] X (A1 / aX1) (5) : 

At iso-absorptive point aX1 = aY1 and Cx = Cy There fore A2/A1 = [aX2 Fx + aY2 – aY2Fx] / aX1 = (aX2 Fx/ aX1) + (aY2/ aX1) –( aY2Fx/ aX1) Let Qx = aX2/aX1 , Qy = aY2/aY1 and absorption ratio Qm = A2/A1 Qm = Fx Qx + Qy - Fx Qy = Fx (Qx-Qy) + Qy Fx = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) (3) From the equations (1) A1 = aX1 (Cx + Cy) there fore Cx + Cy = A1 / aX1 There fore Cx = (A1/aX1) – Cy (4) From the equation (3) Cx / (Cx + Cy) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) There fore Cx / (A1 / aX1) = (Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy) There fore Cx = [(Qm – Qy) / (Qx – Qy)] X (A1 / aX1) (5)

a)            Derivative spectroscopy : 

a)            Derivative spectroscopy

Derivative spectroscopy involves the conversion of a normal spectra to its first, second or higher derivative spectra. The normal spectrum is known as fundamental, zero order or D0 spectra. The first derivative spectrum (D1) is a plot of the rate of change of absorbance with wavelength against wavelength, i.e. plot of ΔA/Δλ vs. λ. The second derivative spectrum is a plot of Δ2A/ Δλ2 vs. λ. For the quantitative estimation of binary mixtures by the derivative spectroscopy, first of all we have to find out the Zero Crossing Points (ZCP) for both the components (A and B). Now select ZCP for A and B so that at that particular ZCP other component shows remarkable absorbance. Now prepare calibration curve of A at the ZCP of B and of B at the ZCP of A. Find out the unknown concentration using calibration curves. : 

Derivative spectroscopy involves the conversion of a normal spectra to its first, second or higher derivative spectra. The normal spectrum is known as fundamental, zero order or D 0 spectra. The first derivative spectrum (D 1 ) is a plot of the rate of change of absorbance with wavelength against wavelength, i.e. plot of ΔA/Δλ vs. λ. The second derivative spectrum is a plot of Δ 2 A/ Δλ 2 vs. λ. For the quantitative estimation of binary mixtures by the derivative spectroscopy, first of all we have to find out the Zero Crossing Points (ZCP) for both the components (A and B). Now select ZCP for A and B so that at that particular ZCP other component shows remarkable absorbance. Now prepare calibration curve of A at the ZCP of B and of B at the ZCP of A. Find out the unknown concentration using calibration curves.

1)      Determination of Dissociation constant of an indicators Indicators give different color at different pH. Methyl red is red in color in acidic medium and is yellow in alkaline medium because in acidic medium it remains as HMR (Unionized form) and in alkaline medium as MR- (Ionized form). HMR MR- + H+ Ka = [(MR-) (H+)] / (HMR) There fore Pka = pH – Log [(MR-) (H+)] 2)      Determination of composition of Complex. M + L = Complex There is two methods for the determination of composition of complex first is Mole ratio method. In this technique concentration of on of the components of the complex is kept constant and other is increased and the absorbance of the resulting solution is measured. Now from the plot of absorbance Vs concentration. Another method is Job’s curve method (Continuous variation method). 5) As a detector in HPLC: 

1)      Determination of Dissociation constant of an indicators Indicators give different color at different pH. Methyl red is red in color in acidic medium and is yellow in alkaline medium because in acidic medium it remains as HMR (Unionized form) and in alkaline medium as MR - (Ionized form). HMR MR - + H + Ka = [(MR - ) (H + )] / (HMR) There fore Pka = pH – Log [(MR - ) (H + )] 2)      Determination of composition of Complex. M + L = Complex There is two methods for the determination of composition of complex first is Mole ratio method. In this technique concentration of on of the components of the complex is kept constant and other is increased and the absorbance of the resulting solution is measured. Now from the plot of absorbance Vs concentration. Another method is Job’s curve method (Continuous variation method). 5) As a detector in HPLC

References: 1)      Beckett, A.H. and Stenlake, J.B., In; Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 4th Edn., Part One, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2000. 2)      Schirmer, R.E., In; Modern Methods of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2nd Edn., Volume-I, CRC Press, Florida, 2000. 3)      Christian, G.D., In; Analytical Chemistry, 6th Edn., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Singapore, 2004. 4)      Ohannesian, L. and Streeter, A.J., In; Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002. 5)      Connors, K.A., In; A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 3rd Edn., A Wiley-Interscience Publications, New York, 1982. 6)      Kalsi, P.S., In; Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, 6th Edn., New Age International Publishers, new Delhi, 2004. : 

References: 1)      Beckett, A.H. and Stenlake, J.B., In; Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 4 th Edn., Part One, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2000. 2)      Schirmer, R.E., In; Modern Methods of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2 nd Edn., Volume-I, CRC Press, Florida, 2000. 3)      Christian, G.D., In; Analytical Chemistry, 6 th Edn., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Singapore, 2004. 4)      Ohannesian, L. and Streeter, A.J., In; Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002. 5)      Connors, K.A., In; A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 3 rd Edn., A Wiley-Interscience Publications, New York, 1982. 6)      Kalsi, P.S., In; Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, 6 th Edn., New Age International Publishers, new Delhi, 2004.

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