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Jayashree , M.V.Sc Veterinary Officer, Kudligere, Bhadravathi Taluk. Topics to be discussed : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 2 Topics to be discussed Animal Genetics and breeding a preview Animal Breeds of India Animal Breeding programmes Advanced animal breeding techniques Future scope for animal genetics BRAHMAN : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 3 BRAHMAN Animal Genetics and Breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 4 Animal Genetics and Breeding Animal breeding is the application of genetics and physiology of reproduction to animal improvement. The purpose of animal breeding is not to genetically improve individual animals but to improve whole animal population i.e. to improve future generations of animals. Rich Biodiversity of India : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 5 Rich Biodiversity of India India is a vast country with its geographical area of 329 million hectares. India has almost all the climatic conditions and ecological zones found in different parts of the world. The different zones vary from perpetual snow cover to equatorial and tropical conditions, from mangroves to humid tropics and hot and cold deserts as well as all the intermediate conditions. Genetic diversity of India : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 6 Genetic diversity of India The country is endowed with large genetic variability in most of the important domestic livestock species . Currently there are 26 described breeds of cattle, 7 buffalo,40 sheep, 20 goat, 4 camel and 6 horse, 3 pig and 18 poultry breeds. Classification of Breedsof India : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 7 Classification of Breedsof India Milch- Gir, Red sindhi, Sahiwal, Deoni Draught-Hallikar,, Khillar,Dandi, Malvi, Kherigarh, Nagore, Nimari,Kenkatha Kangayam,Ponwar, Amrithmahal, Bachaur, Bargur, Siri Dualpurpose-Krishnavalley,Ongole,Rath,Tharparkar,Mewati,Kankrej,Hariana Evolution of Breeds : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 8 Evolution of Breeds Natural Selection by 1.Adaptability 2.Survival to local environment Cattle of dry regions are well built (Ongole and Kankrej) Cattle of heavy rainfall,coastal and hilly areas are smaller built(Malnad gidda andVechur) BOSINDICUS : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 9 BOSINDICUS ONGOLE – COW : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 10 ONGOLE – COW ONGOLE - PAIR : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 11 ONGOLE - PAIR NELLORE : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 12 NELLORE NELLORE – BULL : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 13 NELLORE – BULL KRISHNA VALLEY : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 14 KRISHNA VALLEY HALLIKAR - COW : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 15 HALLIKAR - COW HARIANA - COW : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 16 HARIANA - COW KANGAYAM -BULL : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 17 KANGAYAM -BULL KANGAYAM : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 18 KANGAYAM KANKREJ : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 19 KANKREJ RED SINDHI - BULL : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 20 RED SINDHI - BULL SAHIWAL : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 21 SAHIWAL SAHIWAL - COW : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 22 SAHIWAL - COW THARPARKAR -COW : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 23 THARPARKAR -COW Land marks of Animal breeding in the world : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 24 Land marks of Animal breeding in the world 1725 – 1795 Robert Bakewell, an English man began his animal breeding work at Dishley, Leicestershire, England with horses, sheep and cattle. He is called Father of Animal Breeding. He concentrated on producing farm animals with increased efficiency. Bakewell’s two remarks were “Like begets like” and “Breed the best to the best” Land marks of Animal breeding in the world : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 25 Land marks of Animal breeding in the world 1846-English herd book for cattle 1862-Herd book for Aberdeen angus 1866-Mendel published the law of heredity in Journal of Zoological society of Austria 1875-Herd book for Dutch Friesian cattle Land marks of Animal breeding in the world : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 26 Land marks of Animal breeding in the world 1923-Pig testing station in Sweden 1953-Discovery of DNA as the genetic material 1980-Martin cline and coworkers create a transgenic mouse 1990 -The first genetic engineering company “Genetech” founded in Sanfrancisco in USA. Land marks of Animal breeding in the world : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 27 Land marks of Animal breeding in the world 1990-Formal launch of the international Human genome project 1990-Publication of Michel Crichton’s novel Jurassic park in which bioengineered dinosaurs roam in a paleantological theme park Land marks of Animal breeding in the world : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 28 Land marks of Animal breeding in the world 1997-Researchers at Scotland’s Roslin Institute lead by Ian Wilmut have cloned a sheep called Dolly from somatic cell of an adult ewe 1998-Scientists from University of Hawai cloned a mouse using Wilmut’s technique creating not only dozens of copies but three generations of clones. Land marks of Animal breeding in the world : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 29 Land marks of Animal breeding in the world 1998 -Scientists at Japan’s Kinki University cloned eight identical calves using cells from a single adult cow. 1998 -Scientists at USA created a cloned calf from a friesian cow and named as Jafferson. 2000 -Cloned dairy calf at University of California at Vermont (The Hindu 4-4-2000). Aspects to be considered in Animal Breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 30 Aspects to be considered in Animal Breeding Variation: Noticeable or measurable differences in individuals for a particular character may be qualitative or quantitative. Heretability: The portion of phenotypic variation that is due to additive effect or average effect of the genes. Repeatability: This indicates the proportion of observable differences in the performance between animals in future. Selection : Preference of certain parents Selection and Breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 31 Selection and Breeding To achieve this improvement, the breeder is provided with two important tools Selection and Breeding. Selection decides which animals are going to become parents to produce offspring for the future generation . Breeding decides which males should be mated with which females. Artificial selection: : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 32 Artificial selection: It is the selection practiced by man or breeder. This can also be defined as the efforts of man to increase the frequency of desirable genes. By locating or saving those individuals with superior performance or that have the ability to produce superior performing offspring when mated with individuals from other lines or breeds. Classification of Artificial selection : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 33 Classification of Artificial selection Automatic selection and Deliberate selection Replacement selection and Culling COMPLICATION OF SELECTION : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 34 COMPLICATION OF SELECTION Genetic complication i) Heredity and environment ii) Genotype and phenotype iii) Heritability iv) Regression to the mean v) Types of gene action vi) Correlation of traits vii) Effects of inbreeding COMPLICATION OF SELECTION : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 35 COMPLICATION OF SELECTION Operational complication i) Objectives in selection ii) Number of traits iii) Foundation stock iv) Level of performance v) Systems of selection vi) Length of time vii) Number of animals Breeding for selected traits in Livestock : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 36 Breeding for selected traits in Livestock Age at first calving Milk yield Lactation length Persistency in yield Dry period Service period Intercalving period Fat % in milk Breeding Efficiency Selection methods : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 37 Selection methods Individuality tells us what an animal seems to be; His pedigree tells us what he ought to be; But the performance of the progeny tells us what he is. Selection based on individuality-on the basis of phenotypic characters. Selection based on Pedigree Selection by collateral relatives.-Sib test Selection based on progeny. SIRE EVALUATION : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 38 SIRE EVALUATION Increasing the productivity through genetic improvement requires adequate identification and intensive selection of genetically superior sires. 93 per cent of the total herd improvement comes from breeding of young bulls from tested sires and only 6 per cent from selection of dams. Breeding Value : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 39 Breeding Value The breeding value refers to the average genetic effect of the genes passed on by the individual to its offspring. For maximising the genetic gain by sire selection, it is essential that the method of estimating breeding values of sires should be unbiased and efficient. SIRE EVALUATION METHODS based on Progeny : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 40 SIRE EVALUATION METHODS based on Progeny Simple daughter average index Dam daughter comparison Equal parent index Mount hope bull index Regression index or Rice index Tomar index Sudaresan index BLUP method METHOD OF SELECTION FOR MORE THAN ONE TRIATS : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 41 METHOD OF SELECTION FOR MORE THAN ONE TRIATS Tandem method Independent culling level Selection Index or total score method MATING SYSTEM (BREEDING SYSTEM) : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 42 MATING SYSTEM (BREEDING SYSTEM) The breeding system is broadly classified as In breeding – mating of related individuals. Out breeding – mating of unrelated individual. Positive assortative mating – mating of like to like or mating individual of like phenotype - large to large and small to small. Negative assortative mating – mating of those unlike phenotype. INBREEDING : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 43 INBREEDING Inbreeding is defined as mating between animals which are more closely related each other than the average relationship between all individuals in a population or inbreeding is mating between animals related by ancestors GENETIC EFFECT OF INBREEDING : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 44 GENETIC EFFECT OF INBREEDING Inbreeding is that it makes more pairs of genes in the population homozygous irrespective of the type of gene action involve. Inbreeding does not increase the number of recessive allele in a population but merely brings to light through increased homozygosity Inbreeding fixes characters in an inbred population through increased homozygosity whether the effects are favourable or unfavourable Types of Inbreeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 45 Types of Inbreeding Close Inbreeding: such as mating between sibs or between parents and progeny to achieve inbred lines with relatively high degree of homogenisity. Line breeding: It is a system of mating in which the relationships of an individual or individuals are kept as close as possible to some ancestor. Strain formation: A considerably milder form of inbreeding in which strain forms. In breeding point of view are more or less isolated from each other. Uses of Inbreeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 46 Uses of Inbreeding To exploit heterosis. To determine the actual genetic worth of an individual, this is done by mating to a sire with 25 to 35 daughter before it is used extensively in AI programme. Used as a practical way to select against the recessive genes of economic importance. Used to form distinct families with in a breed OUTBREEDING : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 47 OUTBREEDING Out Crossing-Mating of two pure Breeds Top Crossing-Crossing within pureBreeds Line Crossing-mating with one pure breed and foundation stock Grading up-Continous use of one pure breed sire Cross Breeding –mating of two different breeds Cross Breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 48 Cross Breeding It is the mating of two individuals from different breeds. Cross breeding is done to exploit hybrid vigour or heterosis To the additional profitability obtaining from crossing two populations resulting not from heterosis but the manner in which two or more characters complement each other. Methods of Cross breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 49 Methods of Cross breeding Simple two way cross or single cross: Breed A & B Breed A (♂) X Breed ‘B’(♀) or Breed B (♂) X Breed A(♀) F1 (AB) Cross bred Three way cross : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 50 Three way cross Breed A X Breed ‘B’ F1 AB X C B and C’ In this all males of the 1st cross will be send to the market and the females will be maintained to cross with the 3rd breed namely ‘C’. So in this case both (parental) maternal and individual heterosis are exploited. Double cross or four way cross : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 51 Double cross or four way cross Breed A X Breed ‘B’ - Breed C X Breed D | | F1 (AB) (CD) \ / F2 ( ABCD ) The resulting progeny, 4 different breeds ABCD will be involved in this cross. Breeds of ABCD are utilized for market. In poultry A,B,C & D is called as Grand parents. Back crossing : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 52 Back crossing Criss Crossing A x B | F1-C x A | F2 -D x B | F3-E x A Grading : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 53 Grading ND X Proven sire F150% pure X Registered sire F2 75%pure X Registered sire F3 87.5%pureX Registered sire F4 93.75% pure female MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DAIRY CATTLE : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 54 MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DAIRY CATTLE The selection in dairy cattle has mostly relied on the evaluation of breeding values from the performance of an individual and its relatives. It is believed that the molecular identification of the economic trait loci (QTL) could increase genetic response by reducing time and increasing accuracy of selection through procedure called marker assisted selection Genetic Markers : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 55 Genetic Markers ‘Markers’ as such can be defined as any stable and inherited variations, detectable or measurable by a suitable method, and which can be used to detect the presence of a specific genotype or phenotype other than itself, that otherwise is non-measurable or very difficult to detect. Kinds of Markers : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 56 Kinds of Markers 1.Classical markers-Variations of morphological or anatomical origin. 2.Chromosomal Markers-Chromosomal abnormalities numerical or structural may serve as markers. These have low degree of polymorphism and or heterozygosity hence not usefull in genome analysis. Biochemical Markers : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 57 Biochemical Markers Variations of macromolecules present in body fluids (milk, urine, saliva) and tissues are detected By immunological methods (Blood gps, MHC) and Electrophoretic method ( isoenzymes, milk proteins, blood proteins.) Application of Biochemical Polymorhism in animal Breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 58 Application of Biochemical Polymorhism in animal Breeding For pedigree and parentage studies To study the biochemical profile of an individual For cell hybridisation To study protein chemistry and metabolic pathways To study about molecular basis of heterosis in different species of live stock. Advantages : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 59 Advantages Biochemical traits is determined early in the life of an animal hence helps in selection of an animal even before the animal reaches the age of production. Biochemical analysis is aided by coupling electrophoresis with histochemical staining. Biochemical polymorphic traits : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 60 Biochemical polymorphic traits Blood groups More than 40% of the studies reported significant positive effects of B blood groups on fat percentage of milk in various dairy cattle M blood groups were reported to have positive effect on milk fat and milk protein. Bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA) were found to be associated with milk yield and milk components by few studies (Dentine 1994). Serum esterase is found to be related to weight gain in sheep. Molecular markers : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 61 Molecular markers Genetic markers provide completely heritable traits that can be measured at any age in either sex and that are potentially correlated with economic value. Genetic markers facilitate the "tagging" of individual genes or small chromosome segments containing genes, which influence the trait of interest. Availability of large numbers of such markers has enhanced the likelihood of detection of major genes influencing quantitative traits. DNA based markers : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 62 DNA based markers RFLP-Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Microsatellite Markers Minisatellite/VNTR(Variable number of Tandem repeats) AFLP-Amplified fragment length polymorphism RFLP(Nakamura et.al(1987) : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 63 RFLP(Nakamura et.al(1987) The purified DNA-Digested in Restriction enzymes-the DNA is cut in the specific recognition sites-Fragments are seperated by electrophoresis-Tranferd to nitrocellulose paper-Hybridized with radioactive DNA probes-Polumorphic variations is seen on auto radigrams as radio active bands. Application of DNA markers : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 64 Application of DNA markers RFLP-contribute directly to phenotypic variation.The structural and regulatory sequences of a gene of physiological significance (e.g growth hormone, genes, milk proteins genes, MHC) Effect gene expression - A particular MHC haplotype-DQ1A has been found to be associated with susceptibility to clinical mastitis (Lunden et al.,1990) Other uses found : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 65 Other uses found RFLPs occurring within a gene also make it possible to understand the molecular mechanism and genetic control of several infectious diseases and metabolic disorders Kingsbury (1990) reported that in case of neuro-degenerative diseases like scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, RFLP in the gene for Prion-protein (Prn-P) was responsible for the variation in host's response to the causative microorganisms and incubation time. Indirect applications : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 66 Indirect applications As genomic markers for linkage analysis (Beckmann and Soller, 1983; Smith and Simpson, 1986). Markers can also be used to control and confirm parentage and for individual and line identification purposes Application of RFLPs in conventional breeding : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 67 Application of RFLPs in conventional breeding Mapping of the QTL by linkage. For loci affecting performance traits Or disease resistance and disease susceptibility can be used in breeding programmes (Beckmann and Soller, 1987) by either within breed manipulations like marker assisted selection of young sires or between breed introgression programmes. Other Application of RFLP’s : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 68 Other Application of RFLP’s Parentage determination, Estimation of genetic disorders, Patenting of newly derived strains or variety and Sex determination of pre-implantation embryo, all of which mainly involve the DNA fingerprinting methodology Gene mapping : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 69 Gene mapping A gene map shows the position of genes in the genome. The ultimate gene map would be the complete sequence of DNA showing the location of every gene. Construction of Gene Maps : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 70 Construction of Gene Maps By studying the meiotic linkage relationships of gene loci i.e. linkage analysis. The bovine genome consists of 30 pairs of chromosomes and a total map length of about 3,000 cM. For genetic mapping, it is essential to have all points of the genome within not more than 20 cM of a mapped marker locus. It is already possible to produce a map with approximately 1000 highly polymorphic (microsatellite) markers spaced throughout the genome. Marker-assisted introgression (MAI) : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 71 Marker-assisted introgression (MAI) Using introgression, genetic markers could be used in two ways: Using markers for the genes which is to be introgressed, and Using markers to select for (or against) a particular background genotype Introgression of desirable genes: : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 72 Introgression of desirable genes: Desired gene from an inferior breed Introgressed into Donors(Commercial population). The donor line (or breed) may be inferior for other traits of economic importance. Velogenesis : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 73 Velogenesis “Velogenesis” in which the generation interval is greatly reduced by harvesting oocytes from calves while still in utero. The harvested oocytes are matured and fertilized in vitro prior to being transferred to a recipient female. The process can be repeated by harvesting oocytes from these second generation animals with the generation interval being reduced to around 3 to 6 months. Velogenetics(Georges 1991) : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 74 Velogenetics(Georges 1991) Calves are selected in utero using marker information, and oocytes are harvested. The oocytes are matured, fertilized, and implanted, and MAS again is applied to in utero calves to repeat the cycle Velogenetics : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 75 Velogenetics Nuclear velogenetics : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 76 Nuclear velogenetics Embryos are cultured in vitro and selected using marker information. Nuclear transfer from selected cultures is used to generate new embryos for implantation. Oocytes are harvested from calves in utero and matured,fertilized, and cultured in vitro to repeat the cycle. Nuclear velogenetics : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 77 Nuclear velogenetics Whiz zogenetics(Wilmut 1992) : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 78 Whiz zogenetics(Wilmut 1992) Embryos are cultured in vitro and selected using marker information. Selected cultures are induced to undergo meiosis,and the resulting cells are fertilized and recultured in vitro. Marker information is used to select cultures to repeat the process. Once desired genotypes are achieved, nuclear transfer from selected cultures is used to generate new embryos for implantation Whiz zogenetics. : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 79 Whiz zogenetics. Indian Breeds Exported to other countries : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 80 Indian Breeds Exported to other countries Indian Breeds Exported to other countries : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 81 Indian Breeds Exported to other countries Reproductive biotechnologies and genetic improvement : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 82 Reproductive biotechnologies and genetic improvement Reproductive biotechnologies and genetic improvement Artificial insemination (Al) Embryo transfer (ET) Cloning Cloning of embryos by nuclear transplantation Cloning of embryos by somatic cell nuclear transplantation Role of NBAGR in management and conservation of domestic animal genetic resources : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 83 Role of NBAGR in management and conservation of domestic animal genetic resources The National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (ICAR), Karnal is the lead institute and has the mandate of Identification, Evaluation, Characterization, Conservation and Utilization of Indigenous Livestock and Poultry Genetic Resources. Conservation programs : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 84 Conservation programs Maintenance of the breeds in small numbers especially in the Government livestock farms, research institutes and with breeders at field level in the respective breed tracts could be considered immediately. Immediate strategies would involve the Survey, Conservation of Livestock Genetic Resources, Research on Conservation and Training in Conservation and Management Activities and action plans suggested : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 85 Activities and action plans suggested Implementation of crash programmes for the conservation of native livestock breeds in a critical stage or near extinction. Identification of indigenous livestock breeds that are well suited for the current production systems of India and through the use of a participatory approach, form breeders’ societies for their conservation and improvement. Activities and action plans suggested : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 86 Activities and action plans suggested Constitution of an independent agency to monitor and report periodically on population size, characteristics, performance and genetic, conservation programmes, breeding programmes and status of common property resources in India. Determination of the characteristics of livestock currently required by landless, marginal and small farmers in the different agro-climatic zones. Activities and action plans suggested : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 87 Activities and action plans suggested Developing the indigenous cattle breeds in these zones through selective breeding programmes and make them available to meet the draught, milk or dual purpose needs of the farmers. Identification of breed specific genetic markers (including those for draught ability) to help in the selection of elite indigenous cattle to be used in breeding programmes. Activities and action plans suggested : 11/21/2008 Dr. R. Jayashree 88 Activities and action plans suggested Adoption of embryo reproductive biotechnologies (such as Embryo Transfer) only for producing elite bulls and bull mothers. Identification of genetic markers in indigenous breeds for disease resistance and patent unique disease resistant genes for commercial exploitation. 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