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curriculum meaning, definition, models, steps in development


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Meaning of Curriculum: The term curriculum has been derived from a Latin word ‘ Currere ’ which means a ‘race course’ or ‘run’ a runway on which one runs to reach a goal. Accordingly, a curriculum is the instructional and the educative programme by following which the pupils achieve their goals, ideals and aspirations of life. It is curriculum through which the general aims of a school education receive concrete expression.

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Definition of Curriculum: The term curriculum has been defined by different writers in different ways: 1. Cunningham - “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupils) according to his ideas (aims and objectives) in his studio (school)”.

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Morroe - “Curriculum includes all those activities which are utilized by the school to attain the aims of education. Froebel - “Curriculum should be conceived as an epitome of the rounded whole of the knowledge and experience of the human race.”

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4. Crow and Crow - The curriculum includes all the learners’ experience in or outside school that are included in a programme which has been devised to help him developmentally, emotionally, socially, spiritually and morally”. 5. T.P. Nunn-“The curriculum should be viewed as various forms of activities that are grand expressions of human sprit and that are of the greatest and most permanent significance to the wide world”.

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6. Alberty - Curriculum as “the sum of students activities which the school sponsors for the purpose of achieving its objectives.”

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7. Florence nightingale- Curriculum is a systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school for a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational programme ” Nursing curriculum is the learning opportunity (subject matter ) and the learning activities (clinical experiences and practices) that the faculty plans and implement in various setting for a particular group of students, for a specified period of time in order to attain the objectives.

Curriculum theory and practice:

Curriculum theory and practice In what follows we are going to look at four ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice: 1. Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted . 2. Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students - product . 3. Curriculum as process . 4. Curriculum as praxis(means to do) .

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It is helpful to consider these ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice in the light of Aristotle's influential categorization of knowledge into three disciplines: the theoretical , the productive and the practical .

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Theory practical productivity Syllabus process product praxis

Steps of curriculum development:

Steps of curriculum development Step 1 : Diagnosis of need Step 2 : Formulation of objectives Step 3 : Selection of content Step 4 : Organization of content Step 5 : Selection of learning experiences Step 6 : Organization of learning experiences Step 7 : Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it.

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Curriculum model: A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or rearrange one or more key curriculum components.

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curriculum development encompasses how a ‘curriculum is planned, implemented and evaluated, as well as what people, processes and procedures are involved..’. Curriculum models help designers to systematically and transparently map out the rationale for the use of particular teaching, learning and assessment approaches.

The Product Model of Curriculum Development. :

The Product Model of Curriculum Development. The product model (behavioral objective model )can be traced to the work of the writings of Ralph Tyler (1949-50) who greatly influenced curriculum development in America (O’Neill, 2010). Explains about achievement of end product of quality He identifies 4 fundamental questions to be answered in the process of developing curriculum……..

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1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?  (Tyler 1949: 1)

Process Model of Curriculum Development.:

Process Model of Curriculum Development. Lawrence stenhouse (1975) formulated the process model. It’s a input model emphasizes on learning experience or process of education. It explains about the learning activities during the course in the curriculum to achieve the objective. It includes the teaching methods and learning experiences

Lawton’s cultural analysis model:

Lawton’s cultural analysis model (1983) was reaction against the drawbacks of tyler behavioral model. It focused on the technique of cultural analysis. Culture is the whole way of life of society and the purpose of education.

Beatty's 4 fold model:

Beatty's 4 fold model Curriculum as a map of key subjects Curriculum as a schedule of basic skills Curriculum as a portfolio of meaningful personal experiences(based on student interest) Curriculum as an agenda of important cultural issues.

Components of curriculum:

Components of curriculum The statement of philosophy of the educational programme The statement of the objectives of educational programme Total duration of the educational programme . Detailed course plan for each course( which spells out the placement of the course, subject matter. Time of theory and practical hours, learning experiences like areas of clinical posting etc) Programme of evaluation… such as type of examination, various grades according to the results, percentage of IA , university exam, etc

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