. : Presentation on Rabies Prepared by,
Ansari Ayaz Ahmed Jamil Ahmed
Group number 629, YSMU.
Assistant Olga Vardanyan,YSMU.
Book for family physicians by,
Mandell,Bennet and Dolins . RABIES : Introduction:
Rabies is a viral disease, caused by rhabdovirus , which infects the central nervous tissue and salivary gland. Rabies remains one of the most common viral causes of mortality in the developing world. RABIES . : Exposure to the virus has profound medical and economic implications throughout the world, with as many as 4 million people annually receiving postexposure treatment (PET) to prevent rabies.
Rabies, Latin for “madness,” derives from rabere, to rave, and is related to the Sanskrit word for violence, rabhas. The Greek term for rabies, lyssa, also means madness, and it provides the genus name (Lyssavirus). . How Human get infected…… : Through Infected animal bite.
Rabies virus is transmitted when
a) The virus is introduced into bite wounds or open cuts in the skin.
b) Individual exposed to aerosolized rabies virus in the laboratory. How Human get infected…… Epidemiology: : Rabies is currently distributed worldwide except for Antarctica and a few island nations. The epidemiology of human rabies reflects that of local animal rabies.
In developing areas where canine rabies remains common, most human cases result from dog bites. In regions where dogs are immunized, most human cases follow exposure to rabid wild animals. Epidemiology: . : The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 55,000 humans die of rabies annually. These probably represent an underestimate of the worldwide incidence of the disease, which may cause as many as 100,000 deaths annually.
An estimated 4 million persons receive PET annually, with the vast majority of persons being treated with types of vaccine that carry a risk of neurologic complications . Incubation Period….. : It varies from 20 days to 90 days in majority.
In children incubation period is shorter.
If site of infection is face - about 30 days.
If site of infection are hands - about 40 days.
If site of infection are legs - about 60 days.
Also very much depend on the severity of wound. Incubation Period….. Pathogenesis: : Rabies infection begins with centripetal spread of the virus via peripheral nerves to the CNS, proliferation within the CNS, and centrifugal spread via peripheral nerves to many tissues .
After entering through a break in the skin, across a mucosal surface, or through the respiratory tract, virus replicates in muscle cells, and in so doing it infects the muscle spindle. It then infects the nerve that innervates the spindle and moves centrally within the axons of these neurons. Pathogenesis: . : Replication occurs in peripheral neurons.
Virus is present in dorsal root ganglia within 60 to 72 hours of inoculation, and prior to its arrival in spinal cord neurons, confirming its transport within sensory neurons. . . : After CNS infection, virus spreads to the rest of the body via peripheral nerves. The high concentration of virus in saliva results from viral shedding from sensory nerve endings in the oral mucosa, and it also reflects replication in the salivary glands. . Immune responses….. : The immune response to natural rabies infection is insufficient to prevent disease.
Rabies can produce immunosuppression and if unvaccinated,patient develop a measurable antibody response, it occurs late in the course.
Patients developing a cellular immune response tend to have the encephalitic (furious) form rather than the paralytic form, and they die faster than those who do not mount such a response. Immune responses….. . : Some investigators believe that interleukin-1 production in the CNS may explain the immunosuppressive effect of the virus.
One study suggests that the virus may persist in macrophages and emerge later to produce disease.This may explain some cases with very long incubation periods, or there may be other tissue locations in which viral sequestration occurs. . Clinical features….. : Pain , irritation or discomfort at the site of bite.
Fear and anxiety.
Intolerance to loud sounds.
Hoarseness of voice and sense of constriction in throat with difficulty in swallowing.
If spinal cord and brain are infected then subsequently symptoms of Furious rabies or Paralytic(dumb)rabies will develop. Clinical features….. Furious rabies….. : Hydrophobia.
Periods of excitement.
Cranial nerve lesions(3rd,7th,8th).
Fluctuating body temperature and blood pressure.
Tachycardia. Furious rabies….. Paralytic or dumb rabies….. : Patients with paralytic rabies, unlike those with the furious form, do not have hydrophobia, aerophobia.
Is rare seen in those bitten by vampire bats.
Flaccid paralysis is often begins in the bitten limb and ascends symmetrically or asymmetrically until it involves muscles of deglutition and respiration killing the patient in 2/3 days. Paralytic or dumb rabies….. Diagnosis…… : Biopsies.
Viral detection in saliva, throat swabs and tracheal aspirates.
Antibody detection is the most successful method for confirming diagnosis. Diagnosis…… Treatment: : Immunoglobulins.
The cornerstone of rabies prevention is wound care, potentially reducing the risk of rabies by 90%.
Washing with a 20% soap solution is as effective as ammonium compounds.
Irrigation with a virucidal agent such as povidone-iodine is advisable.
After wound care, the clinician must decide to do passive and active immunization. Treatment: . : A series of 1-mL doses of modern cell culture vaccine administered intramuscularly on days 0, 3, 7,14 and 28.
If an exposure occurs, a previously immunized person should receive postexposure boosters consisting of two doses 3 days apart.
Persons in the high-risk and moderate-risk rabies exposure categories should have their rabies virus–neutralizing antibody titers monitored every 6 months and every 2 years, respectively. . . : Persons in the low-exposure category do not require serologic monitoring but, like all previously immunized persons, must receive the two booster vaccinations upon exposure to rabies.
Moreover, appropriate wound care (i.e., copious flushing and the use of soap or detergent) remains critical. . . : Thank