AP Ch 2 Atoms Molecules Ions

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Chapter 2:

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2 2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 2.4 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom 2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.6 Molecules and Ions 2.7 An Introduction to the Periodic Table 2.8 Naming Simple Compounds

Three Important Laws:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3 Law of conservation of mass (Lavoisier): Mass is neither created nor destroyed. Law of definite proportion (Proust): A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. Three Important Laws

Three Important Laws (continued):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4 Law of multiple proportions (Dalton): When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers. Three Important Laws (continued)

Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5 Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms . Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)

Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6 The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways . Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued)

Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 7 Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms . Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued)

Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 8 Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms — changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued)

Concept Check:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 9 Concept Check Which of the following statements regarding Dalton’s atomic theory are still believed to be true ? Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms. IV. Atoms are indestructible.

J. J. Thomson (1898—1903):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 10 Postulated the existence of electrons using cathode-ray tubes . Determined the charge-to-mass ratio of an electron. The atom must also contain positive particles that balance exactly the negative charge carried by particles that we now call electrons. J. J. Thomson (1898—1903)

Cathode-Ray Tube:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 11 Cathode-Ray Tube

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(Uranium compound) 2.2

Robert Millikan (1909):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 13 Performed experiments involving charged oil drops . Determined the magnitude of the charge on a single electron. Calculated the mass of the electron. Robert Millikan (1909)

Millikan Oil Drop Experiment:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 14 Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

Ernest Rutherford (1911):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 15 Explained the nuclear atom . Atom has a dense center of positive charge called the nucleus. Electrons travel around the nucleus at a relatively large distance. Ernest Rutherford (1911)

Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 16 Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment

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Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 17 The atom contains: Electrons – found outside the nucleus; negatively charged. Protons – found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron’s negative charge. Neutrons – found in the nucleus; no charge; virtually same mass as a proton.

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Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 18 The nucleus is: Small compared with the overall size of the atom. Extremely dense; accounts for almost all of the atom’s mass.

Nuclear Atom Viewed in Cross Section:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 19 Nuclear Atom Viewed in Cross Section

Isotopes:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 20 Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons . Show almost identical chemical properties; chemistry of atom is due to its electrons. In nature most elements contain mixtures of isotopes. Isotopes

Two Isotopes of Sodium:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 21 Two Isotopes of Sodium

Exercise:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 22 Exercise A certain isotope X contains 23 protons and 28 neutrons. What is the mass number of this isotope? Identify the element . Mass Number = 51 Vanadium

Chemical Bonds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 23 Covalent Bonds Bonds form between atoms by sharing electrons. Resulting collection of atoms is called a molecule. Chemical Bonds

Covalent Bonding:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 24 Covalent Bonding

Chemical Bonds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 25 Ionic Bonds Bonds form due to force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. Ion – atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge. Cation – positive ion; lost electron(s). Anion – negative ion; gained electron(s). Chemical Bonds

Molecular vs. Ionic Compounds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 26 Molecular vs. Ionic Compounds

Exercise:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 27 Exercise A certain isotope X + contains 54 electrons and 78 neutrons. What is the mass number of this isotope? 133

The Periodic Table:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 28 Metals vs. Nonmetals Groups or Families – elements in the same vertical columns; have similar chemical properties Periods – horizontal rows of elements The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 29 The Periodic Table

Groups or Families:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 30 Table of common charges formed when creating ionic compounds. Groups or Families Group or Family Charge Alkali Metals (1A) 1+ Alkaline Earth Metals (2A) 2+ Halogens (7A) 1– Noble Gases (8A) 0

Naming Compounds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 31 Binary Compounds Composed of two elements Ionic and covalent compounds included Binary Ionic Compounds Metal—nonmetal Binary Covalent Compounds Nonmetal—nonmetal Common Names only: H 2 O & NH 3 Naming Compounds

Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 32 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2. A monatomic cation takes its name from the name of the parent element. 3. A monatomic anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding – ide . Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I)

Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 33 Examples: KCl Potassium chloride MgBr 2 Magnesium bromide CaO Calcium oxide Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I)

Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 34 Metals in these compounds form more than one type of positive charge. Charge on the metal ion must be specified. Roman numeral indicates the charge of the metal cation. Transition metal cations usually require a Roman numeral. Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II)

Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 35 Examples: CuBr Copper(I) bromide FeS Iron(II) sulfide PbO 2 Lead(IV) oxide Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II)

Polyatomic Ions:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 36 Must be memorized (see Table 2.5 on pg. 62 in text). Examples of compounds containing polyatomic ions: NaOH Sodium hydroxide Mg(NO 3 ) 2 Magnesium nitrate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Ammonium sulfate Polyatomic Ions

Formation of Ionic Compounds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 37 Formation of Ionic Compounds

Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (memorize these!!):

Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (memorize these!!) From Zumdahl HD book – NOT in AP book!!! Use these names, when possible, on the homework worksheet

Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 39 Formed between two nonmetals. 1. The first element in the formula is named first, using the full element name. 2. The second element is named as if it were an anion (-ide). 3. Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present. 4. The prefix mono - is never used for naming the first element. Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III)

Prefixes Used to Indicate Number in Chemical Names:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 40 Prefixes Used to Indicate Number in Chemical Names

Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III):

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 41 Examples: CO 2 Carbon dioxide SF 6 Sulfur hexafluoride N 2 O 4 Dinitrogen tetroxide Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III)

Overall Strategy for Naming Chemical Compounds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 42 Overall Strategy for Naming Chemical Compounds

Flowchart for Naming Binary Compounds:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 43 Flowchart for Naming Binary Compounds

Acids:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 44 Acids can be recognized by the hydrogen that appears first in the formula—HCl. Molecule with one or more H + ions attached to an anion. Acids

Acids:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 45 If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix hydro– and the suffix –ic . Must be dissolved in water to be an acid! (aq) or acid required – otherwise it’s a GAS Examples: HCl Hydrochloric acid HCN Hydrocyanic acid H 2 S Hydrosulfuric acid Acids

Acids:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 46 If the anion does contain oxygen: The suffix –ic is added to the root name if the anion name ends in –ate . Automatically acid – these gases do not exist Examples: HNO 3 Nitric acid H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic acid Acids

Acids:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 47 If the anion does contain oxygen: The suffix –ous is added to the root name if the anion name ends in –ite . Automatically acid – these gases do not exist Examples: HNO 2 Nitrous acid H 2 SO 3 Sulfurous acid HClO 2 Chlorous acid Acids

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2.7

Flowchart for Naming Acids:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 49 Flowchart for Naming Acids

Exercise:

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 50 Exercise Which of the following compounds is named incorrectly ? KNO 3 potassium nitrate TiO 2 titanium(II) oxide Sn(OH) 4 tin(IV) hydroxide PBr 5 phosphorus pentabromide CaCrO 4 calcium chromate

Mixed Practice:

Mixed Practice Dinitrogen monoxide Potassium sulfide Copper (II) nitrate Dichlorine heptoxide Chromium (III) sulfate Ferric sulfite Calcium oxide Barium carbonate Iodine monochloride N 2 O K 2 S Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Cl 2 O 7 Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Fe 2 (SO 3 ) 3 CaO BaCO 3 ICl

Mixed Practice:

Mixed Practice BaI 2 P 4 S 3 Ca(OH) 2 FeCO 3 Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 I 2 O 5 Cu(ClO 4 ) 2 CS 2 B 2 Cl 4 Barium iodide Tetraphosphorus trisulfide Calcium hydroxide Iron (II) carbonate Sodium dichromate Diiodine pentoxide Cupric perchlorate Carbon disulfide Diboron tetrachloride

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