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Gastrointestinal Disorders Spring, 2016:

Gastrointestinal Disorders Spring, 2016 Nursing 205: Pathophysiology Joyce Brill

Gastrointestinal Function:

Gastrointestinal Function Digestion of nutrients Elimination of wastes Absorption of water, electrolytes, nutrients, vitamins, minerals Manufacture of hormones, enzymes, & vitamins Maintenance of immunocompetence

Gastrointestinal Structure:

Gastrointestinal Structure GI tract: Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus Accessory organs Salivary glands Liver Pancreas Gall bladder

Upper GI Tract:

Upper GI Tract Intake of food Initiation of digestion Comprised of: Mouth Esophagus Stomach Absorption of: Water Alcohol

Salivary Secretion:

Salivary Secretion Types: Parotid Submaxillary Sublingual Buccal Function: Lubrication Antimicrobial protection Initiation of digestion

Gastric Secretion:

Gastric Secretion Gastric (oxyntic) glands: Parietal cells HCl acid Intrinsic Factor (IF) Chief cells pepsinogen * Pyloric glands: Mucus Pepsinogen Gastrin

Middle GI Tract:

Middle GI Tract Majority of digestion & absorption Small intestines: Duodenum Absorption of iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, fats, sugars, proteins, vitamins, water Jejunum Absorption of sugars & proteins Ileum Absorption of bile salts, vitamin B12, chloride

GI Tract Histology (Middle & Lower):

GI Tract Histology (Middle & Lower) Mucosa – epithelium produces mucus Submucosa – connective tissue Contains vessels, nerves Produces enzymes Muscularis – inner (circular) & outer (longitudinal) Facilitate peristalsis Serosa/adventitia (peritoneum)

Intestinal Villi:

Intestinal Villi Functional unit of small intestine Increase surface area Composition: Enterocytes: secrete enzymes Crypts of Lieberkuhn: glands

Key secretions:

Key secretions Hormones: Cholecystokinin Gastrin Secretin Bile Enzymes: Lactase Sucrase Amylase Maltase Aminopeptidase Dipeptidase Pancreatic enzymes

Lower GI Tract:

Lower GI Tract Stores & eliminates wastes Comprised of: Cecum Colon Absorption of water & electrolytes Rectum

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