PRESENTATION ON MINOR AILMENTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

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THIS PPT DEALS WITH MINOR AILMENTS OF PREGNANCY

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MINOR AILMENTS IN PREGNANCY AND ITS MAMAGEMENT: 

SUPERVISED BY : Mrs. P.VADIVUKKARASI, ASST. PROFESSOR, DEPT. OF OBG (N), MSKCON, BALONGI, PREPARED AND PRESENTED BY : Ms. JASVINDER KAUR M.Sc.(N) I YEAR DEPT. OF OBG (N) MSKCON,BALONGI. MINOR AILMENTS IN PREGNANCY AND ITS MAMAGEMENT 1 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

INTRODUCTION: 

The anatomical physiological and biochemical adaptations to pregnancy are profound. Minor disorder may occur due to hormonal changes, accommodation changes, metabolic changes and postural changes. Every system of the body is affected by pregnancy. She also needs knowledge when she presents with discomforting or worrying symptoms . INTRODUCTION 2 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

MEANING: 

Pregnancy is a very exciting time, but often the minor ailments associated with Pregnancy can cause discomfort. The discomfort can be overcome by making small adjustments to your lifestyle, thereby ensuring that you have a healthy and comfortable pregnancy. MEANING 3 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

DEFINITION: 

During the course of pregnancy period many changes occur in a woman’s body as a result of hormonal influences and adaptation to the gestational process. Thereby, they experience a variety of physiological and psychological symptoms such as nausea, vomitting , backache , giddiness , heartburn and anxiety etc. These are termed as minor ailments or discomforts of pregnancy. DEFINITION 4 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

The main minor ailments in pregnancy according to the human system:- : 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CIRCULATORY SYSTEM RESPIRATORY SYSTEM INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM MUSCULOSKETAL SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEM URINARY SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The main minor ailments in pregnancy according to the human system:- 5 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM : 

Nausea and vomiting Heart burn/Pyrosis Pica Excessive salivation (Ptyalism) Constipation Sequelae/Eupulis & tender gum Flatulence Bloating Belching Hemorrhoid DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 6 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

NAUSEA AND VOMITING: 

Usually last 4-16 weeks -It is usually common in primigravida and usually appears following first or second missed period subsides by the end of first trimester , vomiting occurs soon after getting out of bed The cause of vomiting is not clear but increase Human chorionic gonadotrophin has been implicated to play a major role. NAUSEA AND VOMITING 7 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

NURSING MEASURES :-: 

Adequate rest & relaxation Small frequent feeds , especially crakers , dry toast and cereals . Avoid spicy and greasy food . Protein diet. Anti-emetics are better avoided. Pre-natal vitamins with iron are avoided for the first 12 weeks. Avoiding slouching after meals. NURSING MEASURES : - 8 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

HEART BURN (PYROSIS) : 

from 20 weeks to term This common complaint is the result of reflux of acid contents of the stomach .The relaxation of the esophageal sphincter due to effect of progesterone and the weight effect of the pregnant uterus preventing stomach empting are the causes for this reflux of acid contents . Over eating , late eating alcohol and spicy foods contribute to the problem . Hiatus hernia which is common during pregnancy is another cause of heart burn . HEART BURN (PYROSIS) 9 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

NURSING MEASURES :-: 

Avoid lying flat. Propped up position after meals. Smaller meals more often. Antacids. Avoiding aggravating factors . e.g. citrus juice, spicy & fried food . NURSING MEASURES :- 10 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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EXCESSIVE SALIVATION This occurs from 8th week of gestation and it is thought that the hormones of pregnancy are the cause for it . It may accompany heartburn. PICA This is the term used when the mother craves certain foods or unnatural substances such as coal. The cause is unknown but hormones and changes in metabolism are thought to contribute to this. If the substances craved are harmful to the unborn baby the mother must be helped to seek medical advice. 11 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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CONSTIPATION Can last entire pregnancy . Various factors contribute to constipation during pregnancy which include effect of progesterone on gut motility, physical weight of the grand uterus on the rectum and the use of iron tablets . NURSING MEASURES :- Plenty of fluids , green leafy vegetables and fibers in diet (isabgul). Laxatives (surface itching) could prescribed by physician. Regular exercises & walking. 12 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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SEQUELAE/EUPULIS & TENDER GUMS Increased vascularity and hypertrophy of the interdental papillae. It is improved usually after pregnancy termination. SEQUELAE Increased tendency for bleeding. Retention of food debries predisposes to sepsis & dental caries. NURSING MEASURES :- Proper dental hygiene. Cryosurgery for severe cases. FLATULENCE This is usually due to bacterial action in the intestines which produce gas. To help relive this, eat small amounts and try to establish a daily bowel action. 13 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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BLOATING BELCHING This is partly caused by hormonal changes but usually occurs later in the pregnancy when the growing womb presses on the stomach. NURSING MEASURES Try eating smaller meals more often. Sit up straight when you are eating as this takes the pressure off your stomach. Avoid particular foods that make your symptoms worse, especially fatty and spicy food. 14 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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HAEMORRHOID Laxity of the rectal vein by progesterone effect. Pressure by the gravid uterus. Tendency to constipation. NURSING MEASURES :- Avoid constipation. Soothy & astringent agents. Local anesthetic. Surgical & local injection treatment have to be avoided. 15 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

  CIRCULATORY SYSTEM : 

FAINTING VARICOSE VEIN ANKLE EDEMA CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 16 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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FAINTING Fainting is not unusual during the early weeks of pregnancy because the blood pressure tends to fall at that time. NURSING MEASURES :- Wear cooler, loose clothes. Do not stand for too long. Beware of hot, enclosed areas. If you feel faint :- Try to find somewhere to sit down. Loosen tights clothes. Put your head down. Get into fresh air as soon as possible 17 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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VARICOSE VEIN 16 weeks to term. Varicose veins in the legs & vulva may appear for the first time or aggravate during pregnancy. It is due to the destruction of the venous return by the weight of pregnancy uterus on the inferior vena cava. It is also thought to be due to the relaxant effect of progesterone on the vascular smooth muscle. NURSING MEASURES :- -Applying elastic stocking or crape bandages for leg varicosities. -Elevation of limb during rest. -Usually disappear delivery. -No surgical intervention is required. 18 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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ANKLE EDEMA As pregnancy advances the patient may notice swelling of their feet & ankles. This is due to impediment of venous return from the lower limbs due to pressure effect on the gravid uterus on the lower limbs veins. NURSING MEASURES :- Frequent periods of rest with limb elevation for at least 15 minutes each time. Avoiding long period of standing or sitting. Diuretics should not be used. 19 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM : 

NASAL STIFFNESS EPISTAXIS DYSNEA SHORTNESS OF BREATH RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 20 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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NASAL STIFFNESS Some mothers-to-be who develop “stuffy” or “ snuffy ” noses find them difficult to get rid of.   The problem may last until after the baby is born and may not be connected with a cold at all: - Don’t take cold cures for it. - Consult your Doctor if it is very irritating or gets worse. 21 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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EPISTAXIS Nosebleeds are quite common in pregnancy because of hormonal changes. The nose bleeds are usually short but can be quite heavy. To help the bleeding stop, press the sides of your nose together between your thumb and forefinger, just below the bony part of your nose, for 10 minutes. Repeat for a further 10minutes if this does not work. As long as --you don’t lose a lot of blood, there is nothing to worry about. If you have more than two bad nosebleeds (or lots of little ones), consult your GP. Severe and frequent nosebleeds may contribute to anaemia , or may be a sign of underlying illness. You may also find that your nose gets more blocked up than usual. The pregnancy hormones may cause the lining of your nose and sinuses to swell, so you feel continually blocked up and stuffy. To help with this and to avoid nosebleeds: 22 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

CONTINUED……: 

Blow your nose gently and try to avoid explosive sneezes. Try a steam inhalation, perhaps with a few drops of tea tree oil in the water. If your nose is blocked, you will probably find that you breathe through your mouth, especially while you are asleep. This will give you a very dry mouth, so keep a glass of water handy for when you wake and use Vaseline to keep your lips moist. You may start to snore. Sleeping on your side may relieve this. If things get very bad, ask you doctor about safe decongestant medications. Passing water frequently Needing to pass water often is an early sign of pregnancy. Sometimes, it continues right through pregnancy. In later pregnancy, it is the result of the baby’s head pressin . CONTINUED …… 23 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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DYSNEA It may occur early in pregnancy due to hyperventilation caused by progesterone. Late in pregnancy, it occur due to pressure on the diaphragm by the pregnant uterus. SHORTNESS OF BREATH It occurs due to unfamiliarity with co2 tension in the alveolar capillaries. 24 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

  INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM : 

SKIN CHANGES CHLOASMA GRAVIDUM LINEA NIGRA LINEA ALBICANS & STRAIEGRAVIDUM INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 25 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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SKIN CHANGES Some mothers complain of generalized the itching ,which often starts over the abdomen. This occur due to liver’s response to the hormones in pregnancy with raised bilirubin level. It clears after the baby is born and comfort can be gained from focal applications An anti-histamine is prescribed . Washing with mild soap and wear cotton underwear . 26 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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CHLOASMA GRAVIDUM (Mask of pregnancy) a butterfly pigmentation on the cheeks & nose. It usually disappear few months after labor. LINEA NIGRA Reassure the mother that pigmentation in middle below the umbilicus is nor mal & after delivery there are some topical ointments that helps to remove this scar. 27 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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LINEA ALBICANS & STRAIEGRAVIDUM Pigmentation in the lower abdomen, flanks, inner thigh, buttocks & breasts increases as pregnancy advances. It starts pink (straie rubra) then becomes pale to become white (straie albicans) after delivery, white persists. In Primigravida, the straie rubra present only. In multigravida, both striae rubra & striae albicans present. 28 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSYEM : 

LOW BACKACHE LEG CRAMPS MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSYEM 29 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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LOW BACKACHE Usually lasts from 20 weeks to term. During pregnancy there is laxity of spinal ligaments which along with the weight of pregnancy puts a strain on the joints of the lumbo sacral spine & pelvis resulting in lumber lordosis & consequent backache. NURSING MEASURES :- Maintenance of correct posture. Avoiding lifting heavy objects. Avoid high heels. Regular physiotherapy. Firm mattress to sleep on. Enough rest particularly in later pregnancy. Swimming often soothes backache. Watch weight gain. Avoiding standing for long hours of time. 30 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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LEG CRAMPS This is due to the deficiency of diffusible serum calcium or elevation of serum phosphorus. NURSING MEASURES :- Supplementary calcium therapy & vitamin B1(30mcg) daily. Application of local heart & massage. High doses of vitamin E (400mg) BD often proves beneficial. 31 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

NERVOUS SYSTEM : 

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME INSOMNIA OR SLEEPLESSNESS NERVOUS SYSTEM 32 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME Mothers complain of numbness & pins & needles in their fingers & hands. This usually happen in the morning, but it can occur at any time of the day. It is caused by fluid retention, which create edema & pressure on the median nerve. NURSING MEASURES :- Wearing a spent at night, with hands resting on two or three pillows some times helps. Restriction of salt intake. Flexing the fingers while the arm is held above the head can be recommended. Carpal tunnel syndrome usually resolves spontaneously following delivery. 33 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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INSOMNIA OR SLEEPLESSNESS 28 Weeks to term. It occurs due to hormonal changes that occurs during pregnancy can be a major cause of anxiety in a pregnant mother. Its late pregnancy, it caused by fetal movements pregnancy of micturition & difficulty in finding comfortable position. NURSING MEASURES :- Take rest in the afternoon. Drink a glass of warm milk at bed time. Tuck a pillow under the abdomen when lying in a lateral position. Daily exercise. Plenty of fresh air. Avoid caffeine & multivitamin before sleep. Warm milk drink or a warm bath help to allay anxiety & hence insomnia 34 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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URINARY SYSTEM FREQUENCY OF MICTURITION 35 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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FREQUENCY OF MICTURITION 2nd trimester to term. The pressure of the growing gravid uterus during the early part of pregnancy & the pressure of the fetal head when it engages the pelvic brim near full term cause irritation of the bladder base & predispose to urinary frequency 36 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM : 

LEUCORRHEA BREAST BRAXTON HICKS CONTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 37 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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LEUCORRHEA This is due to the increased transudation of fluids as a results of increased vascularity during pregnancy. This discharge is clear & white & do not have unpleasant smell. NURSING MEASURES :- Assurance to the mother. Local cleanliness. Rule out any infection. Wear cotton underwear & avoid tights. BREAST You may notice an increase in size and possibly some tenderness very early during your pregnancy and this can last for the entire pregnancy. You may need larger and more supportive bras. Also some women will have a clear to milky discharge from their nipples and may need to use shields or nursing pads to protect their clothing. 38 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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BRAXTON HICKS CONTRACTION Also known as 'false labour' is an uncomfortable, irregular uterine contractions that occur periodically towards the end of labour. This is a sign that your uterus is preparing itself for labour, Generally these contractions begin at the top of your uterus and gradually spread downwards before relaxing .In some women they are painless, however, others can find them uncomfortable and even a little painful. Braxton Hicks contractions usually begin around the 20th week of pregnancy but for a first pregnancy may begin earlier. Generally, this 'false labour' will fade with a warm bath. If you find it uncomfortable try practicing the breathing exercises or any other coping techniques which you have learned for use in labour. If the contractions persist and you are not near full term - call your health provider. If the contractions become regular, every five minutes and last sixty seconds each - call your healthcare provider. 39 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

CONCLUSION: 

We have discussed about the minor ailments in pregnancy &its their management, meaning, definition, minor ailments in pregnancy & its their management according to systemwise:- Digestive system, Circulatory system, Respiratory system, Integumentary system, Musculoskeletal system, Nervous system, Urinary system, Reproductive system etc. CONCLUSION 40 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

SUMMARY: 

- So far we have discussed regarding meaning, definition & minor ailments in pregnancy & its their management in detail. SUMMARY 41 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

REFERENCES: 

“ Annamma Jacob “, “ A comprehensive textbook of midwifery” , “Published by- Jaypee brothers”, “Second edition” ,” Page No.-116 to 120.” “Dutta D.C.” ,”Texbook of obstetrics ,”Published by-New central book agency pvt. Ltd.”,”6 th edition”, Page No-102-103. ”Myles”, Textbook for midwifery ,” Published by -Churcill Livingstone”, “14 edition” ,”Page No-217 to219 .” http://www.docstoc.com/docs/19844589/MINOR-AILMENTS-DURING-PREGNANCY-During-your-pregnancy-you-may http://www.welldonemum.ie/A_freqUrination.html http://www.gov.bm/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_5487_508_1203_43/http%3B/ptpublisher.gov.bm%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ministry_of_health_and_family_services/new_health/dept___health___women___important_information_for_women/content/minor_ailments_during_pregnancy.html http://www.royalberkshire.nhs.uk/pdf/minor_disorders.pdf http://www.powershow.com/view/25edf-MTIzN/Minor_Ailments_of_Pregnancy_powerpoint_ppt_presentation REFERENCES 42 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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http://environment.gov.bm/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_5487_508_1203_43/http%3B/ptpublisher.gov.bm%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ministry_of_health_and_family_services/new_health/dept___health___women___important_information_for_women/content/minor_ailments_during_pregnancy.html http://www.welldonemum.ie/A_minorDisorders.html http://onlinemidwife.hubpages.com/hub/Minor-disorders-in-pregnancy http://www.bahola.co.in/articles/MINOR-AILMENTS-DURING-PREGNANCY.pdf http://119.82.96.198:8080/jspui/handle/123456789/3103http://www.scribd.com/doc/48848043/MINOR-DISORDERS-OF-PREGNANCY-final-copy https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QccQ1mJGDG0J:www.rguhs.ac.in/cdc/onlinecdc/uploads/05_N006_2081.doc+studies+related+to+minor+ailments+in+pregnancy&hl=en&gl=in&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgaHMeVsmHuwCTR6xTjEL_1urkoYrylHYL2uUpOlkcHyui26uRlWYphW1CnxGtPcBaQ1DOH-pbF4-j_5uEQvz-Jy1eg421UBG_zZtlq6uYNCUC0Jk9ARtVR985K0PQ0kjnMDeuB&sig=AHIEtbTl 43 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab

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THANK YOU 44 Mata Sahib Kaur College of Nursing ,Balongi, Mohali,Punjab