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Simple squamous epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Simple squamous epithelium Single layer of cells that resembles a tiled floor on the surface Nucleus is centrally located and appears flattened oval or sphere Found at sites for filtration or diffusion

Stratified Squamous Epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Stratified Squamous Epithelium Several layers of cells that are flat in the apical layer New cells are pushed up toward apical layer As cells move further from the blood supply they dehydrate, harden, and die Keratinized form contain the fibrous protein keratin Found in superficial layers of the skin Nonkeratinized form does not contain keratin Found in mouth and esophagus

Simple cuboidal epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Simple cuboidal epithelium Cuboidal shaped cells Cell nuclei round and centrally located Found in thyroid gland and kidneys Functions in secretion and absorption

Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium Contains columnar cells with microvilli at their apical surface and goblet cells Secreted mucus serves as lubricant for the lining of digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts Also prevents the destruction of the stomach lining by acidic gastric juices

Transitional Epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Transitional Epithelium Found only in the urinary system Variable appearance In relaxed state, cells appear cuboidal Upon stretching, cells become flattened and appear squamous Ideal for hollow structure subjected to expansion

Covering and Lining Epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Covering and Lining Epithelium

Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glands : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glands Secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the bloodstream Function in maintaining homeostasis

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Fairly rare type of epithelium Apical layers are cuboidal Functions in protection

Stratified columnar epithelium : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Stratified columnar epithelium Also very uncommon Columnar cells in apical layer only Basal layers has shorten, irregular shaped cells Functions in protection and secretion

Connective Tissue Cells : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Connective Tissue Cells Fibroblasts Secrete fibers and components of ground substance Adipocytes (fat cells) Store triglycerides (fat) Mast cells Produce histamine White blood cells Immune response Neutrophil and Eosinophils Macrophages Engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis Plasma cells Secrete antibodies

Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix Ground substance Between cells and fibers Fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified Functions to support and bind cells, store water, and allow exchange between blood and cells Complex combination of proteins and polysaccharides Fibers Collagen fibers Elastic fibers Reticular fibers

Dense Connective Tissue : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dense Connective Tissue Dense connective tissue Contains numerous, thicker, and denser fibers Packed closely with fewer cells than loose connective tissue Dense regular connective tissue Bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parallel patterns for strength Tendons and most ligaments

Areolar connective tissue : 

Areolar connective tissue Collagen, elastin and reticular fibers Lots of cell types:fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, mast cells Semifluid ground substance Also located in papillary layer of dermis, lamin propria of mucous membranes, around blood vessels, nerves and body organs

Types of Mature Connective Tissue: Dense Irregular Connective Tissue : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Types of Mature Connective Tissue: Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Collagen fibers are usually irregularly arranged Found where pulling forces are exerted in many directions Dermis of skin and heart

Fibrocartilage : 

Fibrocartilage Collagen fibers in ground substance 2:Lacunae containing chondrocyte 3, nuclei darker part in middle

Reticular connective tissue : 

Reticular connective tissue Stroma Reticular lamina of basement membrane Around b.v.s and muscles Filters in spleen, Removes microbes in lymph nodes

Hyaline cartilage: most abundant type : 

Hyaline cartilage: most abundant type Fine collagen fibers, many chondrocytes Location: end of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, nose, parts of larynx,trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic and fetal skeleton Provides smooth surfaces for movement at joints, as well as flexibility and support

Elastic connective tissue : 

Elastic connective tissue Lots of elastic fibers, fibroblasts in between elastic fibers Located where you need to stretch: lungs, elastic arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, true vocal cords, suspensory ligaments of penis, some ligaments between vertebrae

Skeletal Muscle Tissue : 

Skeletal Muscle Tissue Are usually attached to bones Have striations (stripes) and are cylindrical in shape Are multinucleated (have many nuclei) located along the edges of the cells Are controlled by conscious thought (are voluntary )

Cardiac Muscle Tissue : 

Cardiac Muscle Tissue Is only located forming the walls of the heart Have striations and are branched cells connected with an Intercalated disc (unique to cardiac muscle) Have a single nucleus located in the center of the cell Are Involuntary (not consciously controlled)

Smooth Muscle Tissue : 

Smooth Muscle Tissue Is located in the walls of hollow internal structures like blood vessels, airways of lungs, stomach, and intestines Is Nonstriated (no striped appearance), has a spindle shape (tapered at ends) and has one nucleus Is usually under involuntary control

Neuron : 

Neuron

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Shoulder Joint Ball-and-socket joint formed by the head of the humerus and the scapula More freedom of movement than any other joint of the body

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Hip Joint Ball-and-socket joint formed by the femur and the hip bone

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Knee Joint Largest and most complex joint of the body Modified hinge joint

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Knee Joint

Femur : 

Femur Medial and Lateral Condyles- distal ends of the femur.

Patella : 

Patella Patella tendon- attaches to the anterior of the tibia. Quadriceps tendon-attaches the quadriceps to the patella.

Cruciate Ligaments : 

Cruciate Ligaments Major stabilizing ligaments in the knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)-prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur Injuries caused by hyperflexion

Cruciate Ligaments : 

Cruciate Ligaments Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)-It prevents the tibia from sliding backwards under the femur. Injuries usually caused by Hyperextension

Collateral Ligament : 

Collateral Ligament Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)- connect the tibia and the femur. A force from the lateral side could cause a tear.

Collateral Ligament : 

Collateral Ligament Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)- connect the fibula to the femur. A force from the medial side can cause a tear of the LCL

Cartilage : 

Cartilage Articulate Cartilage-covers the moving parts of the knee. Chronic damage to articulate cartilage leads to arthritis.

Cartilage : 

Cartilage Meniscus- half moon shaped cartilage lying between the knee joint.

Knee Injuries : 

Knee Injuries ACL Replacement surgery. Animation Animation 2

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Bones Clavicle Scapula Humerus Shoulder vs Shoulder Girdle

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Joints Sternoclavicular

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Joints Sternoclavicular Acromioclavicular

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Joints Sternoclavicular Acromioclavicular Glenohumeral

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Ligaments Acromioclavicular Joint Acromioclavicular Ligament

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Ligaments Glenohumeral Joint Glenohumeral ligaments Superior Middle Inferior

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Cartilage Glenoid labrum

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