Chap 9 Joints

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Chapter 9: Joints : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 9: Joints

JointsChapter 9 : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. JointsChapter 9 Joint Classifications Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Types of Movements at Synovial Joints Types of Synovial Joints Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints Selected Joints of the Body Aging and Joints Arthroplasty

Joints (Joint Classification) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Joint Classification) The structural classification of joints Fibrous joints (bones held together by dense collagen fibers) Cartilaginous joints (bones held together by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage) Synovial joints (have synovial cavities, bones held together by ligaments) The functional classification of joints Synarthrosis (an immovable joint) Amphiarthrosis (a slightly movable joint) Diarthrosis (a freely movable joint)

Joints (Fibrous Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Fibrous Joints) Lack a synovial cavity The articulating bones are held very closely together by dense irregular connective tissue Fibrous joints permit little or no movement Three types of fibrous joints Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses

Joints (Fibrous Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Fibrous Joints) Sutures Occur only between bones of the skull Syndesmoses Permits slight movement Interosseous membrane Between the tibia and fibula in the leg Between the radius and ulna Gomphoses Immovable joint Joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket Articulations of the teeth with the sockets of the maxillae and mandible

Joints (Cartilaginous Joints) SYNARTHROSIS : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Cartilaginous Joints) SYNARTHROSIS Lacks a synovial cavity Allows little or no movement Joint is tightly connected by either hyaline or fibrocartilage Two types of cartilaginous joints Synchondroses: Symphyses:

Joints (Cartilaginous Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Cartilaginous Joints) Synchondroses Connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage Epiphyseal (growth) plate Joint betw/ first rib and manubrium of sternum Symphyses Slightly movable joint Ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones Pubic symphysis Between the anterior surfaces of the hip bones Intervertebral joints between the vertebrae

Joints (Synovial Joints) DIARTHROSIS : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Synovial Joints) DIARTHROSIS Synovial cavity allows a joint to be freely movable Ligaments hold bones together in a synovial joint Articular Capsule A sleeve-like capsule encloses the synovial cavity The articular capsule is composed of two layers an outer fibrous capsule (dense irregular c.t. mostly collagen fibers) an inner synovial membrane (areolar c.t. w/elastic fibers) Many have articular fat pads Synovial Fluid The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid (like egg whites) Consists of hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblast-like cells in the synovial membrane and interstitial fluid filtered from blood plasma Functions to reduce friction by: lubricating the joint absorbing shocks supplying oxygen and nutrients to the cartilage removing carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the cartilage

Joints (Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Synovial Joints)

Joints (Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Synovial Joints) Accessory Ligaments and Articular Discs Collateral ligaments of the knee joint Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint Menisci Pads of cartilage lie between the articular surfaces of the bones Allow bones of different shapes to fit together more tightly

Joints (Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Synovial Joints) Nerve and Blood Supply Nerve endings convey information about pain from the joint to the spinal cord and brain Nerve endings respond to the degree of movement and stretch at a joint Arterial branches from several different arteries merge around a joint before penetrating the articular capsule

Joints (Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Synovial Joints) Bursae and Tendon Sheaths Bursae Sac-like structures containing fluid similar to synovial fluid Located between tendons, ligaments and bones Cushion the movement of these body parts Tendon sheaths Wrap around tendons Reduce friction at joints

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Specific terminology is used to designate the movements that occur at joints Movements are grouped into four main categories: 1) Gliding 2) Angular movements 3) Rotation 4) Special movements

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Gliding Simple movement back-and-forth and from side-to-side There is no significant alteration of the angle between the bones Limited in range Intercarpal joints Angular Movements Increase or a decrease in the angle between articulating bones Angular movements include Flexion Extension Lateral flexion Hyperextension Abduction Adduction Circumduction

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Flexion Decrease in the angle between articulating bones Bending the trunk forward Extension Increase in the angle between articulating bones Flexion and extension are opposite movements Lateral flexion Movement of the trunk sideways to the right or left at the waist Hyperextension Continuation of extension beyond the normal extension Bending the trunk backward Abduction Movement of a bone away from the midline Moving the humerus laterally at the shoulder joint Adduction Movement of a bone toward the midline Movement that returns body parts to normal position from abduction

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Circumduction Movement of a body part in a circle Moving the humerus in a circle at the shoulder joint Rotation A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis Turning the head from side to side as when you shake your head “no”

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints)

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Special Movements Elevation Depression Protraction Retraction Inversion Eversion Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Supination Pronation Opposition

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Elevation Upward movement of a part of the body Closing the mouth Its opposing movement is depression Depression Downward movement of a part of the body Opening the mouth Protraction Movement of a part of the body anteriorly Thrusting the mandible outward Its opposing movement is retraction Retraction Movement of a protracted part of the body back to normal

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Inversion Movement of the foot medially Its opposing movement is eversion Eversion Movement of the sole laterally Dorsiflexion Bending of the foot at the ankle in an upward direction Its opposing movement is plantar flexion Plantar flexion Bending of the foot at the ankle in a downward direction Supination Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned upward Its opposing movement is pronation Pronation Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned downward Opposition Movement of the thumb in which the thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand

Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints)

Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) Synovial joints are classified based on type of movement Planar Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball-and-socket

Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) Planar Joints Primarily permit back-and-forth and side-to-side movements Intercarpal joints Hinge Joints Produce an opening and closing motion like that of a hinged door Permit only flexion and extension Knee and elbow

Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) Pivot Joints Surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone Joints that enable the palms to turn anteriorly and posteriorly Condyloid Joints The projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone Wrist

Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) Saddle Joints Articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped, and the articular surface of the other bone fits into the “saddle” Thumb Ball-and-Socket Joints Ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another bone Shoulder and hip

Joints (Types of Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Synovial Joints)

Joints (Factors Affecting Contact and Range for Motion at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Factors Affecting Contact and Range for Motion at Synovial Joints) Range of motion (ROM) Refers to the range, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved Factors contribute to keeping the articular surfaces in contact and affect range of motion: Structure or shape of the articulating bones Shape of bones determines how closely they fit together Strength and tension of the joint ligaments Ligaments are tense when the joint is in certain positions Tense ligaments restrict the range of motion

Joints (Factors Affecting Contact and Range for Motion at Synovial Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Factors Affecting Contact and Range for Motion at Synovial Joints) Arrangement and tension of the muscles Muscle tension reinforces the restraint placed on a joint by its ligaments , and thus restricts movement Contact of soft parts The point at which one body surface contacts another may limit mobility Movement be restricted by the presence of adipose tissue Hormones Flexibility may also be affected by hormones Relaxin increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis and loosens the ligaments between the sacrum and hip bone toward the end of pregnancy Disuse Movement may be restricted if a joint has not been used for an extended period

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) The selected joints described are: Temporomandibular joint Shoulder joint Elbow joint Hip joint Knee joint

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Temporomandibular Joint Combined hinge and planar joint formed by the mandible and the temporal bone Only movable joint between skull bones Only the mandible moves

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Shoulder Joint Ball-and-socket joint formed by the head of the humerus and the scapula More freedom of movement than any other joint of the body

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Elbow Joint Hinge joint formed by the humerus, the ulna, and the radius

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Hip Joint Ball-and-socket joint formed by the femur and the hip bone

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Knee Joint Largest and most complex joint of the body Modified hinge joint

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Knee Joint

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body)

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body)

Joints (Aging and Joints) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Aging and Joints) Aging May result in decreased production of synovial fluid The articular cartilage becomes thinner Ligaments shorten and lose some of their flexibility Osteoarthritis is partially age-related Stretching and aerobic exercises are helpful in minimizing the effects of aging Help to maintain the effective functioning of ligaments, tendons, muscles, synovial fluid, and articular cartilage

Joints (Arthroplasty) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Arthroplasty) Arthroplasty Joints may be replaced surgically with artificial joints Most commonly replaced are the hips, knees, and shoulders Hip Replacements Partial hip replacements involve only the femur Total hip replacements involve both the acetabulum and head of the femur Knee Replacements Actually a resurfacing of cartilage and may be partial or total Potential complications of arthroplasty include infection, blood clots, loosening or dislocation of the replacement components, and nerve injury

Joints (Arthroplasty) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Arthroplasty)

Joints (Arthroplasty) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Arthroplasty)

End of Chapter 9Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein. : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. End of Chapter 9Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein.

Knee Anatomy : 

Knee Anatomy Spring 2005

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Knee Joint

Knee Joint : 

Knee Joint The most poorly constructed joint in the body. Femur round, tibia flat. Comprised of four bones. Femur Tibia Fibula Patella

Femur : 

Femur Medial and Lateral Condyles- distal ends of the femur.

Patella : 

Patella Patella tendon- attaches to the anterior of the tibia. Quadriceps tendon-attaches the quadriceps to the patella.

Cruciate Ligaments : 

Cruciate Ligaments Major stabilizing ligaments in the knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)-prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur Injuries caused by hyperflexion

Cruciate Ligaments : 

Cruciate Ligaments Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)-It prevents the tibia from sliding backwards under the femur. Injuries usually caused by Hyperextension

Collateral Ligament : 

Collateral Ligament Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)- connect the tibia and the femur. A force from the lateral side could cause a tear.

Collateral Ligament : 

Collateral Ligament Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)- connect the fibula to the femur. A force from the medial side can cause a tear of the LCL

Cartilage : 

Cartilage Articulate Cartilage-covers the moving parts of the knee. Chronic damage to articulate cartilage leads to arthritis.

Cartilage : 

Cartilage Meniscus- half moon shaped cartilage lying between the knee joint.

Online Anatomy : 

Online Anatomy

Meniscus Tear : 

Meniscus Tear Surgery Chronic Arthritis

Knee Injuries : 

Knee Injuries ACL Replacement surgery. Animation Animation 2

Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Selected Joints of the Body) Elbow Joint Hinge joint formed by the humerus, the ulna, and the radius

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Bones Clavicle Scapula Humerus Shoulder vs Shoulder Girdle

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Joints Sternoclavicular

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Joints Sternoclavicular Acromioclavicular

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Joints Sternoclavicular Acromioclavicular Glenohumeral

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Ligaments Acromioclavicular Joint Acromioclavicular Ligament

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Ligaments Glenohumeral Joint Glenohumeral ligaments Superior Middle Inferior

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Cartilage Glenoid labrum

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Shoulder Girdle Muscles Trapezius

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Shoulder Girdle Muscles Trapezius Serratus Anterior

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Glenohumeral Muscles Rotator Cuff Suprispinatus Infraspinatus Teres Minor Subscapularis

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Glenohumeral Muscles Latissimus Dorsi

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Glenohumeral Muscles Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Glenohumeral Muscles Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Deltoid

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Glenohumeral Muscles Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Deltoid Biceps

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Glenohumeral Muscles Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Deltoid Biceps Triceps

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Muscles as a whole

Shoulder Anatomy : 

Shoulder Anatomy Other structures Brachial Plexus Brachial Artery

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