The Central Nervous System

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Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves

Development of the Brain : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Development of the Brain Three to four-week embryo: prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. Five-week embryo: telencephalon (cerebrum), diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus), mesencephalon (midbrain), metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) and myelencephalon (medulla oblongata).

Development of the Brain : 

Development of the Brain Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Major Parts of the Brain : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Major Parts of the Brain Brain stem- continuation of the spinal cord; consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. Cerebellum- second largest part of the brain. Diencephalon- gives rise to thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus. Cerebrum- largest part of the brain.

The Brain : 

The Brain Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Protective Coverings of the Brain : 

Protective Coverings of the Brain The cranium The cranial meninges: dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Special names for dura mater : 

Special names for dura mater Three extensions separate the brain: Falx cerebri separate the two cerebral hemispheres. Falx cerebelli separate the two cerebellar hemispheres. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Extensions of the Dura Mater : 

Extensions of the Dura Mater Tentorium cerebelli separate the cerebrum from the cerebellum. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brain Blood Flow and the Blood-Brain Barrier : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Brain Blood Flow and the Blood-Brain Barrier Brain receives approximately 20% of the total blood supply. Internal carotid and vertebral arteries carry blood to the brain. Internal jugular veins return blood from the brain. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects brain from harmful substances.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Clear fluid. Circulates through cavities in the brain (ventricles) and the spinal cord (central canal) and also in the subarachnoid space. Absorbs shock and protects the brain and the spinal cord. Helps transport nutrients and wastes from the blood and the nervous tissue.

Ventricles : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ventricles CSF-filled cavities within the brain. Lateral ventricles: cerebral hemispheres. Third ventricle: diencephalon. Cerebral aqueduct: midbrain. Fourth ventricle: brain stem and the cerebellum.

Formation and Circulation of CSF in the Ventricles : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Formation and Circulation of CSF in the Ventricles Choroid plexuses- networks of capillaries in the walls of the ventricles. Ventricles are lined by ependymal cells. Plasma is drawn from the choroid plexuses through ependymal cells into the ventricles to produce CSF.

Formation and Circulation of CSF in the Ventricles : 

Formation and Circulation of CSF in the Ventricles Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Circulation of CSF : 

Circulation of CSF CSF from the lateral ventricles → interventricular foramina → third ventricle → cerebral aqueduct → fourth ventricle → subarachnoid space or central canal. CSF is reabsorbed into the blood by arachnoid villi. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Medulla Oblongata : 

Medulla Oblongata Pyramids- Bulges on the anterior aspect of the medulla. Formed by the large corticospinal tracts that pass from the cerebrum to the spinal cord. A common site for decussation of ascending and descending tracts. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Centers of the Medulla Oblongata : 

Centers of the Medulla Oblongata Vital centers: Cardiovascular center- Respiratory center- Also includes centers for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing, coughing and hiccupping. Houses five pairs of cranial nerves, VIII-XII. Portion of the ventricle found here is the fourth ventricle. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Midbrain or Mesencephalon : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Midbrain or Mesencephalon Extends from the pons to the diencephalon. Part of the ventricle found here- cerebral aqueduct. Cerebral peduncles: axons of the corticospinal, corticopontine and corticobulbar tracts. Tectum- situated posteriorly and contains four rounded elevations: two superior ones called superior colliculi and two inferior ones called inferior colliculi.

Midbrain or Mesencephalon : 

Midbrain or Mesencephalon

Midbrain : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Midbrain Substantia nigra: large area with dark pigments. Help control subconscious muscle activities. Loss of neurons here is associated with Parkinson disease. Red nucleus: Help control voluntary movements of the limbs. Contains cranial nerves III-IV. Contains visual and auditory reflexes (involuntary); equilibrium reflexes

Midbrain : 

Midbrain Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Reticular formation : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reticular formation Extends from the upper part of the spinal cord, throughout the brain stem, and into the lower part of the diencephalon. Part of the reticular formation called the reticular activating system (RAS) consists of sensory axons that project to the cerebral cortex. The RAS helps maintain consciousness.

The Cerebellum : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Cerebellum Second largest part of the brain. The central constricted area is the vermis. The anterior and posterior lobes control subconscious aspects of skeletal movement. The flocculonodular lobe on the inferior side contributes to the equilibrium and balance.

The Cerebellum : 

The Cerebellum Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Cerebellum : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Cerebellum Cerebellar cortex- gray matter in the form of parallel folds called folia. Arbor vitae- tracts of white matter. Cerebellar peduncles- three pairs: superior, middle and inferior. Attach cerebellum to the brain stem. Functions- coordinate movements, regulate posture and balance.

Thalamus : 

Thalamus Intermediate mass Several nuclei: Major relay station for most sensory impulses. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hypothalamus : 

Hypothalamus Inferior to the thalamus. Consists of mammillary body, median eminence, infundibulum, and a number of nuclei. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Functions of the Hypothalamus : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Functions of the Hypothalamus Control of the ANS. Production of hormones Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temperature, and circadian rhythms.

Epithalamus : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Epithalamus Small region superior to the thalamus. Consists of pineal gland which secretes a hormone called melatonin. Melatonin induces sleep.

The Cerebrum : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Cerebrum “seat of intelligence” Cerebral cortex- gray matter. Gyri- Sulci- Longitudinal fissure- Cerebral hemispheres-

The Cerebrum : 

The Cerebrum Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lobes of the Cerebrum : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lobes of the Cerebrum Four lobes: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe. Central sulcus- separates the frontal and parietal lobes. Precentral gyrus- primary motor area. Postcentral gyrus- primary somatosensory area.

Cerebral white matter : 

Cerebral white matter Commissural tracts- Corpus callosum: Association tracts- Projection tracts- Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Basal Ganglia : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basal Ganglia Three nuclei deep within each cerebral hemisphere make up basal ganglia. They are globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus. Help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements and regulate muscle tone.

Basal Ganglia : 

Basal Ganglia Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Limbic System : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Limbic System A ring of structures on the inner border of the cerebrum and floor of the diencephalon. Includes cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, amygdala, mammillary bodies, thalamus, and the olfactory bulb. “emotional brain” as it governs emotional aspects of behavior. Also involved in olfaction and memory.

The Limbic System : 

The Limbic System Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Sensory Areas : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Sensory Areas Primary somatosensory area- postcentral gyrus. Primary visual area- occipital lobe. Primary auditory area- temporal lobe. Primary gustatory area- base of the postcentral gyrus. Primary olfactory area- temporal lobe.

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Sensory Areas : 

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Sensory Areas Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Motor Areas : 

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Motor Areas Primary motor area- precentral gyrus. Broca’s speech area- articulation of speech For most, it is located in frontal lobe close to the lateral cerebral sulcus on the left cerebral hemisphere. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Association Areas : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Association Areas Somatosensory association area- posterior to primary somatosensory area: determines the exact shape and texture of something without looking at it; determine the orientation of one object with respect to another as they are felt, and to sense the relationship of one body part to another; storage of memories of past sensory experiences.

Regions of the Cerebrum : 

Regions of the Cerebrum Visual association area- occipital lobe: relates present and past visual information. Auditory association area (22)- temporal lobe. Wernicke’s area- left temporal and parietal lobes: interprets the meaning of speech by recognizing spoken words. Prefrontal cortex- anterior portion of the frontal lobe. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hemispheric Lateralization : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hemispheric Lateralization

Brain Waves : 

Brain Waves Electroencephalogram: Recording of the electrical activity within the brain. Alpha waves Beta waves Theta waves Delta waves Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cranial Nerves : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cranial Nerves 12 pairs. Sensory, motor and mixed nerves. Name as well as roman numeric numbers to identify the nerves.

Olfactory (I) Nerve : 

Olfactory (I) Nerve Sensory nerve. Sense of smell. Olfactory cells converge to become olfactory nerve. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Optic (II) Nerve : 

Optic (II) Nerve Sensory nerve. Ganglion cells in the retina of each eye join to form an optic nerve. Nerve of vision. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Oculomotor (III) Nerve : 

Oculomotor (III) Nerve Motor cranial nerve. Originates in the midbrain. Supply extrinsic eye muscles to control movements of the eyeball and upper eyelid. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Trochlear (IV) Nerve : 

Trochlear (IV) Nerve Motor cranial nerve. Smallest of the 12 cranial nerves. Origin: midbrain. Controls movement of the eyeball. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Trigeminal (V) nerve : 

Trigeminal (V) nerve Largest cranial nerve. Mixed nerve. Three branches: opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular. Deal with sensation of touch, pain and temperature. Motor axons supply muscles of mastication. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Abducens (VI) Nerve : 

Abducens (VI) Nerve Motor cranial nerve. Originates from the pons. Cause abduction of the eyeball (lateral rotation). Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Facial (VII) Nerve : 

Facial (VII) Nerve Mixed cranial nerve. Sensory portion extends from the taste buds of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Motor portion arises from the pons and deal with facial expression. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve : 

Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve Sensory cranial nerve. Originates in the inner ear. Vestibular branch carries impulses for equilibrium. Cochlear branch carries impulses for hearing. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve : 

Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve Mixed cranial nerve. Sensory axons carry signals from the taste buds of the posterior one-third of the tongue. Motor neurons arise from the medulla and deal with the release of saliva. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Vagus (X) Nerve : 

Vagus (X) Nerve

Vagus (X) Nerve : 

Vagus (X) Nerve Mixed cranial nerve. Distributed from the head and neck into the thorax and abdomen. Sensory neurons deal with a variety of sensations such as proprioception, and stretching. Motor neurons arise from the medulla and supply muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate that are involved in swallowing and vocalization. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Accessory (XI) Nerve : 

Accessory (XI) Nerve Motor cranial nerve. Divided into cranial accessory and spinal accessory nerves. Supplies sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles to coordinate head movements. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve : 

Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve Motor cranial nerve. Conduct nerve impulses for speech and swallowing. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

End of Chapter 14 : 

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. End of Chapter 14 Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein.

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