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Accommodations for the Student with Dyslexia EDU 6118 Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner ©Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Animal School http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wN7QfjIcVvA&feature=related Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center “If a child can’t learn the way we teach, we will teach the way he learns.” Charles Drake

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2009 ©Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Accommodations Changes within the general classroom to enable students to keep up with the educational program, such as intensive instruction; reduced assignments; adapted test procedures; and use of computers, calculators, and tape recorders. The term accommodation is not used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 (PL 108-446). That law generally refers to supplemental services that are, for the most part, what §504 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (PL 101-336) call reasonable accommodations. Birsh, 561

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center What is an Accommodation? An accommodation is any technique that alters the academic setting or environment. It enables the student to show more accurately what they know. An accommodation does not change the information or the amount of information learned. C. Wilson Anderson, Jr., MAT, 1999

Accommodations for the Student with Dyslexia:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center What is an Accommodation? Accommodations require students to complete the same assignment/ test as the other students but with adjustments in time, format, setting or presentation. Rick Lavoie: www.ldonline.com

Animal School:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Need for Accommodations Scientific basis for teaching reading In 1998, mandated that a National Reading Panel (NRP) be appointed to carefully review and assess the scientific data on teaching children to read. The NRP found that the most effective, evidence-based approach to teaching reading must include five critical components:

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Findings of the National Reading Panel Phonemic awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Big 5

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Explicit, systematic approach Intense instruction Sufficient time Support services Accommodations

Accommodations:

Smart Kids with School Problems: Things to Know and Ways to Help, Priscilla Vail Accommodations, Not Mollycoddling Often a smart kid’s school problem arises from a mismatch between his learning style and the methods or materials used in the curriculum. For students with receptive and expressive language deficiencies, teachers should incorporate more nonverbal (multisensory) elements into their teaching. Vail (1987) Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

What is an Accommodation?:

Smart Kids with School Problems: Things to Know and Ways to Help, Priscilla Vail Accommodations, Not Mollycoddling Accommodations made in the classroom are far from “mollycoddling.” They simply take varying learning styles into account and give more students the chance to succeed. Vail (1987) Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

What is an Accommodation?:

Why Should I Accommodate for Dyslexia? Improves student self-esteem Increases participation Enhances academic performance It’s the law §504 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (PL 101-336) Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Need for Accommodations:

Eligibility for Accommodations Eligibility for accommodations for dyslexia may be considered by Admission, Review, Dismissal (ARD) Committee §504 Committee Committee of Knowledgeable Persons Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Findings of the National Reading Panel:

Eligibility for Accommodations §504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a national law that protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability. Individuals with disabilities are defined as persons with a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities. People who have a history of, or who are regarded as having a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities, are also covered. Fact Sheet OCR U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2009 Accommodations Help Level the Playing Field ©Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Smart Kids with School Problems: Things to Know and Ways to Help, Priscilla Vail :

Accommodations Are Fair Fair does not mean treating every student exactly the same. Fair means providing each student with what that student needs to have a chance to succeed. ©Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Smart Kids with School Problems: Things to Know and Ways to Help, Priscilla Vail :

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2010 Accommodations for Students with Dyslexia Challenging across settings Teachers seek accommodations that foster learning and management of a class of heterogeneous learners. Accommodations should be reasonable to ask of teachers in all settings. Accommodations help students with learning problems achieve in both general education and special education settings. International Dyslexia Association (IDA) Fact Sheet # 51

Why Should I Accommodate for Dyslexia?:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2010 Accommodations Involving Materials: Textbooks and Curriculum Students spend lots of time interacting with materials. Materials do not always give alternate activities for teaching a large class of students who work at different rates and in various ways. Certain accommodations with materials can enhance learning of diverse students including those with dyslexia. International Dyslexia Association (IDA) Fact Sheet # 51

Eligibility for Accommodations:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Materials: Books/Reading

Eligibility for Accommodations:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2009 Any library books! Many available from: Recording For the Blind and Dyslexic www.rfbd.org

Accommodations Help Level the Playing Field:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Materials: Curriculum

Accommodations Are Fair :

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Materials: Classroom Environment

Accommodations for Students with Dyslexia:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2009 “The Gift of Time” Overcoming Dyslexia Sally Shaywitz

Accommodations Involving Materials: Textbooks and Curriculum:

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Instruction and Assignments: Directions

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Instruction and Assignments: Writing

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Instruction and Assignments: Math

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Instruction and Assignments: Grading

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Instruction and Assignments: Testing

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TAKS Testing Accommodations Bundled Accommodations for Reading 3 rd to 8 th grade Oral Administration Math Science Social Studies Writing Dictate composition Write composition on computer Small group or individual Transcribe Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Instruction and Assignments: Homework

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Technology

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Text-to-Speech Software for Reading One key technology for providing reading assistance is text-to-speech (TTS) software. Assistive reading software uses TTS to speak the text as it is shown on the computer screen Words are usually highlighted when spoken Reinforces correspondence between written words and how they sound Elkind and Elkind, (2007), Perspectives , Volume 33, No. 3 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Benefits of TTS Software Speed Slow readers are able to read faster Endurance Less stress and less tiring Comprehension Improves comprehension in some but not all Sustaining attention Frequency of distraction reduced by as much as 60% Writing Raskin and Higgins (1995) study found that students located a greater number of errors in their writing Elkind and Elkind, (2007), Perspectives , Volume 33, No. 3 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Reading for the Blind and Dyslexic RFB&D “Education is a right, not a privilege.” Anne T. Macdonald Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

TAKS Testing Accommodations :

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center The Teacher is the Key! Positive attitude Look for ways to foster success Supportive environment Organization

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2009

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Psychological Accommodations for the Student Slow down! Give yourself permission to take all the time you need. Create obtainable goals. Break each task down into small, manageable steps. Be willing to work very hard. Recognize and accept the fact that only extra effort will get you all the success that others achieve with much less work. Tessler (1998), pg. 33 Perspectives Vol. 24, No. 3 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Text-to-Speech Software for Reading:

Psychological Accommodations for the Student Don’t quit, especially when the going gets tough. Take a break instead. Establish a timetable that is realistic and leaves as much room for error and re-doing as possible. Anticipate and prepare for problems. Take a chance. Do something you’re not sure you can do well. It’s the only way to grow and find your true potential. Tessler (1998), pg. 33 Perspectives Vol. 24, No. 3 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Benefits of TTS Software :

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Accommodations for Related Disorders

Reading for the Blind and Dyslexic RFB&D:

Dysgraphia Reduce the impact that writing has on learning or expressing knowledge without substantially changing the process or the product. Change assignments to meet student’s individual needs. Texas Key, Spring 2003, No. 1051 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

The Teacher is the Key!:

Dysgraphia When considering accommodations for dysgraphia, consider changes in Rate of producing written work Volume of work to be produced Complexity of the writing task Tools used to produce the written product Format of the product Texas Key, Spring 2003, No. 1051 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Attention Disorder One of the most common accommodations that can be made to the physical environment of the classroom involves determining where a child with ADHD will sit. Three special seating assignments may be especially useful: Special Classroom Seating Seat the child near the teacher. Seat the child near a student role model. Provide low-distraction work areas. www.ed.gov/teachers/needs/speced/adhd/adhd-resource Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Psychological Accommodations for the Student :

Attention Disorder Instructional Tools and the Physical Learning Environment Special instructional tools Pointers Egg timers Classroom lights Music Proper use of furniture www.ed.gov/teachers/needs/speced/adhd/adhd-resource Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Psychological Accommodations for the Student :

Accommodations and Remediation Clearly, high quality remediation combined with appropriate and effective accommodations make a difference. Students with learning differences who receive remedial instruction of sufficient quality and intensity to master basic skills, accommodations appropriate to their disabilities and the content of the curriculum, and are empowered to advocate for their own needs, do very well in school. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center, 2009 Kids Who Are Different Here’s to the kids who are different. The kids who don’t always get A’s, The kids who have ears twice the size of their peers, And noses that go on for days… Here’s to the kids who are different. The kids they call crazy or dumb, The kids who don’t fit, with the guts and the grit, Who dance to a different drum… Here’s to the kids who are different. The kids with the mischievous streak, For they have grown, as history’s shown. It’s their differences that make them unique. ©1982 Digby Wolfe Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

Dysgraphia :

Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center

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