arthakranti

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Monday, January 06, 2014

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Presentation Vision Social Reality Economic Reality Current Reality Loops Proposal Effects of Proposal Strategy Social Security Scheme Linked Proposals Empowering Democracy Animations Credit Establishment Vision Flawed Taxation System Economic Reality Social Reality Appeal FDI Credit Expansion Local Industry Credit Cycle Farmers’ Suicides Internal Borrowings Banking System Disinvestment High Denomination Currency Proposed System Statistics Calculations Currency Denomination Bank Money Direct & Indirect tax Revenue after BTT Proposal Anti-Social Industries Commodity Prices Appeal Terrorism Analysis Strategy

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Vision Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam One Economy Capital Formation Revenue for Effective Governance Principled, Prosperous, Peaceful Living

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Economic Reality Interest on External Debt Cost of running Government National Security Infrastructure, Agriculture, Needs of Common man Complex Taxation system Black money

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Effects of Fiscal Deficit on Local Industry Fiscal Deficit Poor Infrastructure Policies Influenced by Foreign Interests Attract FDI Subsidies Curbed Uncompetitive Local Industry / Trade Unemployment Local Agriculture Rendered Uncompetitive Reduced Rural Purchasing Power Social Insecurities

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Effects of Fiscal Deficit on Credit Cycle & Government Revenue Fiscal Deficit Deficit Budget Inflation Uncompetitive Local Industry / Trade Unemployment Hard Credit Policy NPAs Increase GDP Growth Slows Down Conservative Lending Inadequate Capital Supply to Economy Purchasing Power Reduced Low Demand / Recession Inadequate Tax Revenue to Govt. Social Insecurities

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Effects of Internal Borrowings on Fiscal Deficit Fiscal Deficit Internal Borrowings Spent on Non-Developmental Activities Inadequate Tax Revenue to Govt. GDP Growth Slows Down

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Effects of Fiscal Policy & External Borrowings on Credit Policy & Banking System Fiscal Deficit External Borrowings National Policies Influenced Threat to Local Banking System Expensive Capital Lending Rates Increase Bank Interest Rates Increase Tax Rebate + High Interest Rates on Savings

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Effects of Fiscal Deficit on Disinvestment Policies & Reduced Social Spending Fiscal Deficit Pressure to Disinvestment Threat to Organized Employment Social Insecurities Purchasing Power Reduced Govt. Control Lost in Essential Commodities [e.g. Oil, Medicines etc.] Severe Impact on Weaker Sections Scope for Market Exploitation Cost Burden Passed onto Common Man Public - Private Partnership e.g. Toll Reduced Social Spending

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Effects of Fiscal Deficit on Anti-Social Industries Fiscal Deficit Increased Congestion, Accidents, Pollution Social Insecurities Inadvertent Promotion of Anti-Social Industries Promotion of State Run Lottery Schemes Increase in oil Import Losses (Subsidies) Promoting Increased use of Oil  Automobiles Lack of infrastructure / public amenities (e.g. public transport system) Promotion of Liquor, Gutkha, Cigarettes Direct Ill Effects on Public Health

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Effects on Taxation System & High Denomination Currency Fiscal Deficit Inadequate Tax Revenue to Govt. Tinkering of Taxation System Uncompetitive Local Industry / Trade Expensive Capital Flawed Taxation System Inflation Black Money Parallel Economy Poor Governance Social Insecurities Corruption Non Traceable Transactions Ease of Cash Transactions Large Denomination Notes Less Use of Banking System GDP Growth Slows Down Inadequate Capital Supply to Economy Poor Credit / Capital Formation High Input Costs Tax Evasion Fiscal Deficit

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Effects of Fiscal Deficit on Credit Cycle & Farmers’ Suicides Fiscal Deficit Deficit Budget Inflation Hard Credit Policy Social Unrest Less Use of Banking System Poor Credit / Capital Formation Individual’s Credibility NOT Established Low Credit Supply to Agriculture Unjust Borrowings from Private Sources Farmers’ Suicides

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Flawed Taxation System Narrow Base and Limited Coverage of Direct Taxation Direct to Indirect Tax Ratio is 44:56 Inequitable and hence Regressive Non-Productive Uncertain Inelastic Uneconomical Complex nature of taxes Tax laws open for interpretation Show Show Show Show Show Show Show Show Statistics How should it be… Show

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Currency Denomination Country Per Capita Income Highest Denomination Per Capita Income / Highest Denomination USA UK Japan India $ 40,000 20,000 £ 40,00,000 ¥ Rs. 46,000 $ 100 50 £ 10,000 ¥ Rs. 1,000 400 400 400 46 Currency Denomination Distribution

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Credit Establishment Less Use of Banking System Obstructs Credit Registration of a lot of Citizens in the National Economy

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Cash Transactions will not attract any tax ArthaKranti Proposal Withdrawal of Existing Taxation System Completely * (except Customs/Import Duties) * All Central, State and Local Government Taxes – Direct and Indirect Every Transaction routed through a bank will attract a certain deduction in appropriate percentage as Bank Transaction Tax i.e. Single Point Tax Deducted at Source (say 2 %) This deduction is to be effected on receiving/credit account only This deducted amount will be credited to different Government Levels like Central, State and Local (as say 0.7 %, 0.6 % and 0.35 % respectively) Transacting Bank will also have its share in this deducted amount (say 0.35 %) as the Bank has a key role to perform Withdrawal of High Denomination Currency (say above Rs. 50) Government should make legal provisions to restrict cash transactions up to a certain limit (say Rs. 2,000) This means, Cash Transactions above this limit will NOT enjoy any legal protection.

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Effects of ArthaKranti Proposal Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT High Value Cash Transactions Not Practical Increase in Banking Transactions Tax Revenue Increases by Orders of Magnitude Adequate Revenue to Govt. Adequate Revenue to Government Show

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Effects of ArthaKranti Proposal Tax Collection is Simplified Opportunities for Corruption Eliminated Black Money Eliminated Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Fake Currency Eliminated Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Adequate Revenue to Government Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT

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Effects of ArthaKranti Proposal Increase in Banking Transactions Part of BTT goes to Banks Net Banking Revenue Increases Globally Competitive Interest Rates Cheap and Easy Capital Purchasing Power of Society Increased Market Demand Boosted Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Adequate Revenue to Government Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT

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Effects of ArthaKranti Proposal Commodities and Services are FREED from Tax Influence Prices Drop Focus Shifted to Innovation from Tax Manipulation Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Cheap and Easy Capital Purchasing Power of Society Increases Market Demand Boosted Anti-social and anti-national elements effectively checked Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Adequate Revenue to Government Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Show Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT

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Effects of ArthaKranti Proposal Black Money is Converted into White Tax Revenue Increases by Orders of Magnitude SLR Revised Money Supply Regulated Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Adequate Revenue to Govt. Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Adequate Revenue to Government Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT

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Effects of ArthaKranti Proposal Adequate Revenue to Govt. Industry Trade, Supply Stimulated Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Fiscal Deficit Recovered Govt. Debts Checked Empowered Government Appropriate subsidies Globally Competent Agro-Segment Social Security Restored Employment Opportunities Budgetary Provision for Political System Cleansed Political System Black Money Eliminated Effective Governance Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT

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Revenue for Banking Cheap and Easy Credit Availability Decentralized Revenue Collection System Elimination of Black Money Social Security Scheme Tax Burden Reduced with BTT Budgetary Provision for Political System Elimination of Means & Motives for Corruption Adequate Revenue to run Govt. Programs EMPOWERED INDIA Creativity FREED from Tax Manipulation Building Individual’s Credibility Industry, Trade, Supply Stimulated Anti-Social and Anti-National Elements Effectively Checked Increased Purchasing Power Bank Transaction Tax (Say 2%) High Denomination Currency is Removed (Say above Rs. 50) Legal Provision Made Restricting Cash Transactions up to a Certain Limit (Say Rs. 2000) Existing Cash Deposited in Banks & Attracts BTT

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Jai Hind!

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Back

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Back Distribution of Central Government’s Direct & Indirect Tax Revenues All figures in Rupees Crores

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Back Distribution of State Governments’ Direct & Indirect Tax Revenues All figures in Rupees Crores

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Back Distribution of Central & State Governments’ Combined Direct & Indirect Tax Revenues All figures in Rupees Crores

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Back Distribution of Centre & State Governments’ Combined Direct & Indirect Tax Revenues for the Year 2010-2011

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Back Highest Three Denominations account for 95 % of the Total Currency Money while 37 % of our Population is below Poverty Line with Poverty Line = Rs. 20/-

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Note: Absence of Denominations Larger Than $ 100 in U. S. and the fact that considerable part of the U. S. Currency in $ 100 and $ 50 Bills is in use outside U. S. it being an International Currency. Comparison of Currency Denomination Distribution: Indian Rupee & U. S. Dollar Back

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Banks Primary Deposits Cash Reserves Loans / Derivate Deposits Credit Expansion through Banking System A 2000 1 200 1800 2 B 1800 180 1620 C 1620 162 1458 D 1458 145 1313 E 1313 131 1182 Eventually 20,000 2000 18,000 3 1 - Original Primary Deposit 2 - Original Excess Reserves 3 - Total Capital Formation through Credit Expansion with Original Primary Deposit of Rs. 2000

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Product MFG Cost Taxes Analysis of Commodity Prices Cement Bag 90 ~ 160 Motorbike 21,000 21,000 Petrol 35 / liter 38 / liter Back All figures in rupees Sales Price ~ 250 42,000 73 / liter Chinese Cost 72 25,000 - Diesel 25 / liter 20 / liter 45 / liter -

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Sample Calculations Narrow Money (Transaction Money) ( M1 ) = Currency Money + Demand Deposits For year 2010-2011 Currency Money = 9,50,000 Demand Deposits = 7,18,000 Narrow Money (M1) = 16,68,000 Assuming 20 % of M1 to be active in Daily Bank Transactions, Amount of Money in Daily Bank Transactions (D1) = 3,33,600 Amount of money in Yearly Bank Transactions (Y1) = D1*365 = 3,33,600 *365 = 12,17,64,000 Consider Bank Transaction Tax as 2% (notional) with shares of Central Government= 0.7% , State Government= 0.6% and Local Government= 0.35% . Combined Revenue for Centre ( 0.7% ) and States ( 0.6% ) = Y1 * 1.3/100 = 12,17,64,000 * 0.013 = ~ 15,83,000 Revenue of State Governments (0.6 %) = ~7,31,000 Revenue of Local Governments (0.35 %) = ~4,27,000 Revenue for Banks (0.35 %) = ~4,27,000 All figures in Rupees Crores

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Dependency on FDI

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Dependency on FDI India China

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Back All figures in Rupees Crores

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ArthaKranti Pratishthan Advertising Campaign Public Presentation Media Tools The Indian Citizen Business Leaders Political Leaders & Parties Experts Members of Parliament The ArthaKranti Doctrine The Citizens Charter of Demand The ArthaKranti National Reform Bill Implementation Show Show Show Media Show

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Implementation of ArthaKranti proposal. Its Effects are Enough revenues with government to make legal provision of funds for political system High valued cash transactions difficult Increase the use of the banking system Effective taxation system leading to eradication of black money. Provision for funding of the political system Funding of the political parties based on a per person amount for the entire population for a five year period. Say Rs. 100/person Total population is to be considered while making this provision The actual fund availability will be in proportion to the actual voting percentage This funding will be available only to Registered political parties securing more than a certain minimum percentage of votes cast Sample Calculation for funding political parties Giving healthy monthly allowances to the elected representatives The proposal for allowance of elected representatives Empowering Democracy

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Empowering Democracy Calculations At the Central Level: Total provision for the entire population for the period of 5 years - 121 Cr. * 100 (per Person Amount) = Rs. 12,100 Cr. Provision per year – Rs. 2,420 Cr. The total Amount available in proportion to a total valid votes percentage - Say 60% Amount available for 5 year period = 12,100 * 60/100 = 7,260 Cr. At the State Level: State population say 10 Crores Funds provision for 5 year period = 10 Cr. * Rs. 100 = Rs. 1,000 Cr. At the Local level: Population of the urban areas is say, 10 Lakh Funds provision for 5 year period = 10 L * Rs. 100 = Rs. 10 Cr. Actual funding will depend upon the total percentage of votes cast. Back

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Empowering Democracy Allowance for Elected Representatives For MPs at Rs 10 Lakh/month For MLAs at Rs 5 Lakh/month For Corporators at Rs. 1,00,000/month For Village Development Officer at Rs. 10,000/month The spending with these provisions will be - At the central level -- 785*10L*12 = Rs. 942 Cr. against a projected revenue of ~Rs. 7,46,651 Cr. = ~0.13 % of the revenue - At the state level (e.g. Maharashtra) – 366*5L*12 = ~Rs. 220 Cr. against a projected revenue of ~Rs. 50,000 Cr. = 0.44 % of the revenue - At the local corporation level (e.g. Aurangabad) – 100*1,00,000*12 = Rs. 12 Cr. against a revenue of ~Rs. 250 Cr. = 4.8 % of the revenue Back

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Eradication of Black Money Appropriate remuneration for elected representatives at all levels Legal provision of funds for politics at all levels Provision of funding for political parties based on population Effective funding available for political parties depends upon voting percentage Funding to political parties based on the percentage of votes won Decreased dependence on corruption and criminals Assured clean funding Transparency in politics Dignity & public trust restored Politics professionalized as the qualified people will take it up Decreases ill-influence of local parties in national politics Political parties interested in increasing voting Politics focused on real issues and national interests Increased stability of government Improved functioning and decision making Increased law and order Improved governance Empowering democracy

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Jai Hind!

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A Social security identification (SSID) is issued to every Indian Citizen. To begin with the beneficiaries of the Social Security Allowance Scheme will be all adult citizens of India beneath the poverty line. For every deserving adult, a fixed amount (linked to DA) , Social Security Allowance, is credited per month into a unique bank account linked to the SSID - Say Rs. 2,000/ pm -- Based on Food (Rs. 900/-) + Shelter (Rs. 500/-) + Clothing (Rs. 300/-) + Health (Rs. 300/-) Government will remove all non-merit subsidies thus freeing up revenue to pay the Social Security Allowance to the deserving citizens All Social security allowance beneficiaries can get credit of Rs. 50,000/- (upper limit) from banks Restrictions to ensure correct usage – - No rights to SSA beneficiaries on income for hereditary property - SSA amount can’t be used as security against any other loan Uniform implementation throughout the country Social Security Proposal

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Social Security Proposal Calculations In first phase, scheme will be implemented for people below poverty line. Number of people below poverty line (monthly income below Rs. 300/-) is 30 Cr Total monthly expenditure = Rs. 2,000 * 30 Cr = Rs. 60,000 Cr Total yearly expenditure = Rs. 60,000 Cr * 12 = Rs. 7,20,000 Cr Excluding current expenditure of Government over subsidies of - Rs. 1,50,000 Cr, additional yearly expenditure will be - 7,20,000 - 1,50,000 = Rs. 5,70,000 Cr Considering current national income of Rs. 40,00,000 Cr, this additional expenditure would be ~15% of national income

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SSA beneficiaries will not have right on income from hereditary property Bank account for SSA (associated with SS Code) SSA can’t be used as security for any other loan Unique SS code for every citizen Maximum Credit Limit For SSA beneficiaries up to say, Rs. 50,000 Withdrawal of Non-merit subsidies (Central and State) Social Security Allowance (Say Rs. 2,000 monthly) (linked to DA) (Food, clothing, shelter, health insurance) Saved Gov. Revenue Expenditure Effective implementation of child welfare laws & schemes Increase in Purchasing power of the poor people Increased use of Banking system Credit available to the poor Credit / Capital expansion in the banking system as a whole Opportunities of Corruption are reduced (PDS, fuel etc.) Price distortion removed Assured dignified existence for every citizen Hugely increased demand for goods and services (Necessities) Establishment of Individual credibility with bank Increased Business / Employment opportunities locally Farmers’ suicide checked Decreased Social Unrest (reduced Naxalism, terrorism, extremism, etc.) Balanced Development (Rural and Urban) Dissemination of Population Social security Market driven quality supply of goods & services Improved quality of life

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Jai Hind!

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Back Government Officials H.E. Smt. Pratibhatai Patil , Hon. President of India (Personal meeting twice) Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia , Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission (Book) Dr. Bhalchandra Mungekar , Member, Planning Commission (Presentation) Dr. Parthasarathy Shome , Ex-Chief Economic Advisor to the Union Finance Minister (Presentation North Block) Dr. Adarsh Kishore Saxena - Ex-Union Finance Secretary (Presentation in the presence of Smt. Pratibhatai Patil) Mr. Johny Joseph - Chief Secretary, Maharashtra (Presentation To CM, Maharashtra ) Mr. Agarwal - Finance and Planning Secretary, Maharashtra (Presentation To CM, Maharashtra ) Mr. Sangith Rao - Principal Secretary, Maharashtra (Presentation To CM, Maharashtra )

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Economists & Experts Dr. D. R. Pendse Dr. Narendra Jadhav M N Chaini Chandrahas Deshpande Sunil Bhandare Jairaj Salgaonkar V. M. Govilkar Back P B Sawant Justice – Supreme Court R A Mashelkar

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Political Leaders Congress Manmohan Singh, Hon. Prime Minister (Book) P. Chidambaram Union Finance Minister (Book) Sushil Kumar Shinde , Union Power Minister Pawan Kumar Bansal, Minister of State for Finance (Presentation) Prithviraj Chavan MOS, PMO’s Office (Meeting) Vilasrao Deshmukh, CM, Maharashtra (Presentation) V George P.A. to Smt Sonia Gandhi (Presentation) Back

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Political Leaders BJP LK Advani Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Yashwant Sinha Arun Shourie Sushma Swaraj Balbir Punj SS Ahluwalia Rajeev Chandrashekhar Nitin Gadkari Gopinath Munde Sompal Shastri Vinay Sahasrabuddhe Sudheendra Kulkarni Back

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Political Leaders Shiv Sena Mohan Rawle Suresh Prabhu Political leaders MNS Raj Thackeray Rajan Shirodkar Shweta Paralkar Shishir Shinde Back

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Political Leaders NCP Sharad Pawar Jayant Patil Political leaders CPI D Raja Dr. Kango Back

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Industrialists Deepak Ghaisas I-Flex solutions Narayan Murthy Infosys Back Arvind Padhye – TCS Pune – Center Head

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Media Experts Kumar Ketkar Loksatta Raju Parulekar E TV Prem Shankar Jha Hindustan Times Rajeev Khandekar – Star TV Yamaji Malkar - Sakal Back

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Creative Artists Vijay Tendulkar Mangesh Tendulkar Sachin Pilgaonkar Ashok Saraf Nina Kulkarni Nivedita Saraf Mohan Joshi Kiran Shantaram Atul Parchure Prashant Damle Swapnil Bandodkar Back

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Educational Institutions Goa Commerce College Osmania university NGOs Loksatta Maitri i-Watch Prayas (Reli group) Back

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Terrorism in India

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How we can tackle this problem?

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Poverty Reduced Social Spending Unemployment Reduced Purchasing Power Flawed Taxation System Tax Evasion Under-utilized Banking System Inadequate Money Supply to Economy Individual’s Credibility not Established High Commodity Prices due to Heavy Indirect Taxes Deprivation – from Resources and Means (Credit) to Acquire Them No Access to Credit Lack of Education & Skills Terrorism Analysis

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Loss of faith in peaceful, democratic process, no hopes of getting ‘justice’ without resorting to violence Deprivation, Extreme Disparity, Envy Poverty Social Oppression (Communal / Religious / Caste / Linguistic etc.) Sense of Hurt, Damage to Self Esteem, Indignation Desperation Rebellious Tendency Terrorism Analysis

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Loss of faith in peaceful, democratic process, no hopes of getting ‘justice’ without resorting to violence Religious Dogma Terrorism Perceived Historical injustice Political / Economic / Philosophical ideology Propaganda for masses, Indoctrination of individuals Birth of a militant Public sympathy, Weak national Character Lack of clear and firm Foreign (therefore, Defense) policy Physical constraints (Porous borders, unregulated coastlines) Parallel economy, Corruption, Fake / high denomination currency Logistic support, funding and training etc from hostile foreign organizations / nations Systemic Administrative weaknesses in governance and law enforcement

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Withdrawal of High Denomination Currency (say above Rs. 50) ArthaKranti Proposal Withdrawal of existing Taxation System Completely (except Customs/Import Duties) Every Transaction routed through a bank will attract a certain deduction in appropriate percentage as Bank Transaction Tax i.e. Single Point Tax Deducted at Source (say 2 %) This deduction is to be effected on receiving/credit account only This deducted amount will be credited to different Government levels like Central, State and Local (as say 0.7 %, 0.6 % and 0.35 % respectively) Transacting Bank will also have its share in this deducted amount (say 0.35 %) as the Bank has a key role to perform Cash Transactions will not attract any tax Government should make legal provisions to restrict cash transactions up to a certain limit (say Rs. 2000)

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Poverty Reduced social spending Unemployment Reduced purchasing power Flawed taxation system Tax evasion Under-utilized banking system Inadequate money supply to economy Individual’s credibility not established High commodity prices due to heavy indirect taxes Deprivation – from resources and means (credit) to acquire them No access to credit Lack of education & skills Effects of Proposal Adequate revenue with Government

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Poverty Unemployment Reduced purchasing power Flawed taxation system Tax evasion Under-utilized banking system Inadequate money supply to economy Individual’s credibility not established High commodity prices due to heavy indirect taxes Deprivation – from resources and means (credit) to acquire them No access to credit Effects of Proposal No Black Money Single point taxation system

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Poverty Unemployment Reduced purchasing power Under-utilized banking system Inadequate money supply to economy Individual’s credibility not established Deprivation – from resources and means (credit) to acquire them No access to credit Effects of Proposal Banking transactions increased Individuals credibility established

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Poverty Unemployment Reduced purchasing power Deprivation – from resources and means (credit) to acquire them Effects of Proposal Industry, trade, supply stimulated Purchasing power increased Cheap & easy capital Single point taxation system Individuals credibility established

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Effects of proposal Terrorism Birth of a militant Public sympathy, Weak national Character Lack of clear and firm Foreign (therefore, Defense) policy Physical constraints (Porous borders, unregulated coastlines) Parallel economy, Corruption, Fake / high denomination currency Logistic support, funding and training etc from hostile foreign organizations / nations Systemic Administrative weaknesses in governance and law enforcement Adequate revenue with Government Individuals credibility established Single point taxation system No Black Money Purchasing power increased Poverty Industry, trade, supply stimulated

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Effects of Proposal Terrorism Birth of a militant Public sympathy, Weak national Character Lack of clear and firm Foreign (therefore, Defense) policy Physical constraints (Porous borders, unregulated coastlines) Parallel economy, Corruption, Fake / high denomination currency Logistic support, funding and training etc from hostile foreign organizations / nations Systemic Administrative weaknesses in governance and law enforcement Adequate revenue with Government Individuals credibility established Single point taxation system No Black Money Purchasing power increased Social Security Industry, trade, supply stimulated Empowered Government

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Jai Hind!

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