organic waste convertor

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INTELLERGY Dr. Terry R. Galloway Intellergy Corp, Berkeley, CA Organic Waste Conversion Energy Recovery From Dairy and Cattle Feedlot Wastes Presented to Central Valley Roundtable Sept. 22, 2005

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Topics for Discussion Who is Intellergy Corp. Sustainable energy through waste conversion Steam reforming as alternative to combustion Status of technology Destruction of infectious agents Animal feedlot waste processing Investment Opportunities

Energy Conversion:

Energy Conversion Advanced Energy Conversion, incl solar Conversion of waste to hydrogen syngas for fuel cells Syngas produced by steam-reforming Intellergy developed the chemistry and hardware units 125 publications, 2 books & was granted 14 patents Some Patents sold to Westinghouse/Duratek Inc. Duratek commercially processed RadWaste Medergy (50% A+A equity) formed for medical waste Website: www.intellergy.com INTELLERGY

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Intellergy 1981 Thermatrix 1988 Basic ChemistryPatents 1987 & 2001 2002 Intellergy Canada 2006 Feedlot Company To be formed Synthetica 1988 Westinghouse 1993 IPO $18M $2M

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TEAMING AGENCIES: California Energy Commission California Department of Health Services U.S. Department of Energy San Francisco Public Utilities Commission Sacramento Municipal Utility District BUSINESS PARTNERS Westinghouse Duratek Inc Kaiser Caterpillar Inc. Anshen + Allen The Shaw Group, Inc. INTELLERGY

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INTELLERGY 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 COAL OIL NATURAL HYDRO FUTURE GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION SOURCE: International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis YEAR RENEWABLES NOTE: Renewables include: Waste, Wind , Solar PV electric & thermal, Ocean current, Ocean thermal, Geothermal, Atmos.Electrical GAS WOOD % NUCLEAR FUSION 390 Annual: 1000 TWh: 83 World Quads: U.S.Quads: 117 195 265 320 359 284 399 665 904 1091 1224 1330 78 98 104 102 99 120 135

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STEAM/CO 2 REFORMING C a H b O c + d CO 2 + (a-c-d) H 2 O ----> (a+d) CO + (a+0.5b-c-d) H 2 One Atmos Pressure, 1000°C or 1850°F No combustion, Cl dioxins, or dibenzofurans C + H 2 O ----> CO + H 2 C + CO 2 ----> 2 CO + Heat H 2 + CO 2 <----> H 2 O + CO C + 2 H 2 ----> CH 4 . . . . ∆

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Steam Reforming of Medwaste/MSW

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Steam Reforming of Medwaste/MSW - Optimized

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DUAL DRUM FEEDERS AT WESTINGHOUSE-SEG/DURATEK

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Converting Radioactive Waste at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant Duratek processed debris and sludges from the Trojan nuclear power plant’s spent fuel pool using a mobile steam reforming system engineered by our staff.

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STEAM REFORMING STEAM GENERATOR CLEANERS AT PALO VERDE NUCLEAR GENERATOR STATION

4 Ton/Day Steam Reformer:

4 Ton/Day Steam Reformer

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TECHNIP ROTARY KILN FOR STEAM/CO 2 REFORMING Operating on MSW at 200 tonnes/day Using Pyrolysis Located in Hamm, Germany Oldest unit - Burgau operating on MSW for 15 years.

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Annihilation of the Nine California Test Organisms to Ten Million-fold Indicator Test Organism Initial Inoculum Level (CFU’S) Staphylococcus aureus 8.3x10 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1.6x10 9 Candida albicans 3.8x10 7 Mycobacterium laticola 2.3x10 8 Bacillus subtilis Spores 1.8x10 8 Bacillus stearothermophilus Spores 1.7x10 9 Enterococcus faecalis 1.6x10 7 Aspergillus Fumigatus 8.8x10 6 Polio type-2 Virus (oral vaccine strain) 1.0x10 10 Sources: Final Report - Northview Pacific Laboratories, Inc., Dec. 7, 1994 BioVir Laboratories, March 2, 1994 for polio virus only.

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Hazardous Waste Destruction Efficiency Effect of Steam Reforming Temperature

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HEAVY METALS ARE BELOW CALIFORNIA TCLP LEVELS ELEMENT LIMIT DETECTED LEVEL (mg/l) (mg/l) Arsenic 5.0 <0.60 ND Barium 100.0 2.70 Cadmium 1.0 0.07 Chromium 5.0 <0.10 ND Lead 5.0 0.17 Mercury 0.2 <0.10 ND Selenium 1.0 <0.50 ND Silver 5.0 <1.00 ND Sources: Calcoast Analytical Laboratories, Report on TCLP-metals Testing, Dec. 8, 1993

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Fuel Cell on Wastewater Treatment Plant Digester Gas

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Solutions to Feedlot Waste Solves Environmental Challenges Improve human health (i.e. asthma) Reduce impact on air & groundwater Improved livestock health (no mad cow, etc.) Eliminate export of waste products INTELLERGY Eliminate Groundwater Contaminants Phosphorus causes toxic Pfisteria blooms Hepatitis B and C illness from well water Runoff toxics into navigable waters

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FRESH AIR Electric Power Clean Air Sterilized Solids FUEL CELL Rotary Kiln Feedlot Sludge VOCs DAIRY FEEDLOT WASTE PROCESSING CONCEPT Sorption Columns INTELLERGY Clean Water CO 2 Thermal Solar + CO 2 Steam &Heat Power Dewatering Steam/Screw Clean Water Cond

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Costs for Dairy Farm: 1600 cows 15 dry-tons/day Plant Producing 1 MWe Capital Costs : Large Rotary Kiln SR + Bal. of plant. = $ 6.2 million Fuel cells @ $800/kW + Bal. of plant. = $ 1.9 Design & Engineering = $ 0.6 TOTAL = $ 8.7 million Operating Costs & Income : Electricity @12¢/kWh Income = + $ 1.0 million/yr Solar Heat Dewatering = + $ 0.8 Avoided Sludge Handling = + $ 0.8 Capital Amortization = - $ 0.4 Labor, Admin, Supplies, Maint. = - $ 1.0 TOTAL = $ 1.2 million/yr Return on Investment in 4.3 Years

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Costs for Cattle Ranch: 18,000 head 170 dry-tons/day Plant Producing 11 MWe Capital Costs : Large Rotary Kiln SR + Bal. of plant. = $ 33 million Fuel cells @ $800/kW + Bal. of plant. = $ 9 Design & Engineering = $ 0.7 TOTAL = $ 42.7 million Operating Costs & Income : Electricity @12¢/kWh Income = + $10.3 million/yr Steam Produced = + $ 0.2 Avoided Sludge Handling = + $ 3.4 Capital Amortization = - $ 1.6 Labor, Admin, Supplies, Maint. = - $ 1.0 TOTAL = $15.5 million/yr Return on Investment in 6.3 Years

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CONCLUSIONS SR is California EPA-tested and DHS-approved Respected by community and environmentalists SR has been applied commercially by Westinghouse and Duratek Vastly improves energy efficiency up to 80% INTELLERGY

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CONCLUSIONS (Cont.) INTELLERGY Provides decentralized energy diversity with electrical power and hydrogen Resolves air, land disposal toxics, and ground water contamination Base plants analyzed have attractive paybacks

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NEXT STEPS INTELLERGY Consortium of farm project stakeholders Use feedlot and other wastes available in pilot plant; then full-scale plant Provide electrical power and thermal energy for farm + avoid health risks Return to investors through attractive payback and ROI.

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Chiller Caustic Spray Tower FM Pump P T P T Scrubbed Syngas Steam/CO 2 Reformer Syngas Preheater Double Gate Lockhopper Sterilzed Solids Receiver Medwaste Feed Screw Screw-Conveying Kiln Variable-speed Motor-drive Waste Feed System Scrubber System Steam/CO 2 System P Vane Vacuum Pump Product Syngas Demister Mat HEPA Filter P Carbon Bed Syngas Polishing System Waste T T T T T T T T T Steam In Steam In T CO 2 O 2

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QUESTIONS ? INTELLERGY

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COST ADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN low high Production by Steam/CO 2 $1.16/gal $1.16/gal Compressor Costs $0.70/gal $1.34/gal Storage Costs $0.31/gal $0.31/gal TOTAL PRICE AT H 2 PUMP $2.17/gal $2.81/gal GAS/DIESEL+HEALTH COST $2.35/gal $3.99/gal Source: Jacobson, M.Z., W. G. Colella, D. M. Golden, “Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles,” Science, 308, 1901-1905 (24 June 2005)

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TYPICAL SEWAGE SLUDGE 87.7 wt% Moisture Analysis, dry basis, wt%: Ash = 24.3 Volatile Matter = 61.3 Fixed Carbon = 14.4 Carbon = 37.3 Hydrogen = 5.4 Oxygen = 24.9 Nitrogen = 5.4 Phosphorus = 3.1 Sulfur = 0.73 Chlorine = 0.31 Silicon = 5.40 Aluminum = 1.75 Iron = 1.92 Titanium = 0.24 Potassium = 0.32 Magnesium = 0.86 Sodium = 0.30 Calcium = 2.35 Moisture: Thickened Sludge=96.4%, Dewatered Cake=79.5% INTELLERGY

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STEAM/CO 2 REFORMING C a H b O c + d CO 2 + (a-c-d) H 2 O ----> (a+d) CO + (a+0.5b-c-d) H 2 One Atmos Pressure, 1000°C or 1850°F No combustion, no dioxins, no dibenzofurans C + H 2 O ----> CO + H 2 C + CO 2 ----> 2 CO + Heat H 2 + CO 2 <----> H 2 O + CO C + 2 H 2 ----> CH 4 . . . . ∆

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INTELLERGY 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 COAL OIL NATURAL HYDRO FUTURE GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION SOURCE: International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis YEAR RENEWABLES NOTE: Renewables include: Waste, Wind , Solar PV electric & thermal, Ocean current, Ocean thermal, Geothermal, Atmos.Electrical GAS WOOD % NUCLEAR FUSION 390 Annual: 1000 TWh: 83 World Quads: U.S.Quads: 117 195 265 320 359 284 399 665 904 1091 1224 1330 78 98 104 102 99 120 135

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