Plagiarism, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

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AVOIDING PLAGIARISM:

AVOIDING PLAGIARISM involves learning to: quote , paraphrase , summarize , and cite sources. This PowerPoint incorporates slides from Purdue Online Writing Lab’s “Cross-referencing: Using MLA Format” and Claudia Cárdenas’ “Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing”

PowerPoint Presentation:

Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing Give examples of several points of view on a subject Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with Highlight a particularly striking phrase , sentence, or passage by quoting the original Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own Why do we use expert sources?

Why Use MLA Format?:

Purdue University Writing Lab Why Use MLA Format? Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily Provides consistent format within a discipline Gives you credibility as a writer Protects you from committing plagiarism

Avoiding Plagiarism:

Purdue University Writing Lab Avoiding Plagiarism Proper citation of your sources in MLA style can help you avoid plagiarism , which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school.

When Should You Use Quotation Marks and Parenthetical Citations?:

Purdue University Writing Lab When Should You Use Quotation Marks and Parenthetical Citations? When quoting any words that are not your own Quoting means to repeat another source word for word , using quotation marks

Handling Quotes in Your Text:

Purdue University Writing Lab Handling Quotes in Your Text Author’s last name and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263).

Quotations :

must be identical to the original , using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author with quotation marks and a citation. Quotations

Have no idea where to include source material in your essays?:

Have no idea where to include source material in your essays? (1.) PRIMARY SUPPORT POINT to support the thesis in the topic sentence of this paragraph. (2.) DETAIL in the second sentence to bring the primary point to life. (3.) QUOTA-TION* WITH CITATION in the third sentence to prove the point. (4.) EXPLANATION in the fourth sentence to make the significance of the quote and the point clear. Try following this formula in a body paragraph:

When Else Should You Use Parenthetical Citations?:

Purdue University Writing Lab When Else Should You Use Parenthetical Citations? When paraphrasing a source Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words When summarizing facts and ideas from a source Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words

Paraphrasing :

involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source with a citation. Paraphrased material is sometimes shorter than the original passage, but often it is just put into language that is easier to understand. Paraphrasing

Summarizing :

involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s) . Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source with a citation. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. Summarizing

Paraphrasing is...:

Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. A more detailed restatement than a summary , which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing is...

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because…:

It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage. It helps you control the temptation to quote too much. The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because…

6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing :

Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Set the original aside , and write your paraphrase on a note card. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

Some examples:

The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Some examples Work Cited Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers . 2nd ed. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1976. Print.

A legitimate paraphrase::

In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). A legitimate paraphrase: The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcri-bing of source materials while taking notes.

An acceptable summary::

Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). An acceptable summary : The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcri-bing of source materials while taking notes.

A plagiarized version: :

Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. A plagiarized version: The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcri-bing of source materials while taking notes.

Steps in Punctuating Direct Quotations It is as easy as counting to five! :

Steps in Punctuating Direct Quotations It is as easy as counting to five!

A sentence that contains quoted matter has two main parts.:

A sentence that contains quoted matter has two main parts. The direct quotation is a record of the exact words spoken. The source phrase names the speaker and gives clues to how the direct quotation is spoken.

There are five basic steps in punctuating direct quotations::

There are five basic steps in punctuating direct quotations: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Add quotation marks. Separate the source phrase from the quote. Capitalize the first word of the direct quotation. Add end marks. Add needed capitalization and punctuation.

PowerPoint Presentation:

How do you punctuate a conversation if the “who said” part (source phrase) comes first?

the mayor insisted taxes will be cut :

the mayor insisted taxes will be cut Step 1: Add quotation marks ( “ ” ) at the beginning and end of the direct quote. the mayor insisted “ taxes will be cut ”

the mayor insisted “taxes will be cut”:

the mayor insisted “taxes will be cut” Step 2: Separate the source phrase from the direct quotation with a comma ( , ). the mayor insisted , “taxes will be cut”

the mayor insisted, “taxes will be cut”:

the mayor insisted, “taxes will be cut” Step 3: Capitalize the first word of the direct quotation if it is a complete sentence but not if it is grammatically necessary to your sentence (that is, if your sentence is incomplete without it). the mayor insisted, “ T axes will be cut” Louise Mallard was “ f ree, free, free!”

the mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut”:

the mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut” Step 4: Place punctuation at the end of the sentence . If the punctuation is a period ( . ), place it before the ending quotation mark. If it is a question mark ( ? ) or an exclamation point( ! ), place it before the ending quotation mark if it is part of the quoted matter or after if it isn’t. 1. the mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut . ” 2. the mayor screamed, “Taxes will be cut ! ” 3. did the mayor really say, “Taxes will be cut” ?

the mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut.”:

the mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut.” Step 5: Remember all other capitalization and punctuation rules. T he mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut.”

The sentence is now correctly punctuated!:

The sentence is now correctly punctuated! The mayor insisted, “Taxes will be cut.”

What if the direct quotation is at the beginning of the sentence?:

What if the direct quotation is at the beginning of the sentence? we hold these truths to be self-evident jefferson wrote Step 1: “ we hold these truths to be self-evident ” jefferson wrote Step 2: “we hold these truths to be self-evident , ” jefferson wrote Step 3: “ W e hold these truths to be self-evident,” jefferson wrote Step 4: “We hold these truths to be self-evident,” jefferson wrote . Step 5: “We hold these truths to be self-evident,” J efferson wrote.

What if the quotation is at the beginning of the sentence and ends in something other than a period?:

What if the quotation is at the beginning of the sentence and ends in something other than a period? wherefore art thou romeo juliet asked Step 1: “ wherefore art thou romeo ” juliet asked Step 2: “wherefore art thou romeo ? ” juliet asked (The source phrase should be separated by a comma except when a question mark or exclamation point is needed.) Step 3: “ W herefore art thou romeo?” juliet asked Step 4: “Wherefore art thou , romeo?” juliet asked . Step 5: “Wherefore art thou, R omeo?” J uliet asked.

How would you punctuate a direct quote when the source phrase divides it in two?:

How would you punctuate a direct quote when the source phrase divides it in two? mr. gorbachev president reagan boomed tear down this wall Step 1: “ mr. gorbachev ” president reagan boomed “ tear down this wall ” (Remember, the quote is divided in two. Place quotation marks around both parts of the quote.) Step 2: “mr. gorbachev , ” president reagan boomed , “tear down this wall” (When the source phrase divides the quotation, it is set off by two commas, one inside the end quote before the source phrase and one right after the source phrase.)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Step 3: “ M r gorbachev,” president reagan boomed, “ t ear down this wall” (Capitalize the first word of the direct quotation. Usually, the first word of the second part of the direct quotation is not capitalized because it is not the first word of a sentence. Exceptions are the word “I” and proper nouns.) Step 4: “Mr . gorbachev,” president reagan boomed, “tear down this wall ! ” Step 5: “Mr. G orbachev,” P resident R eagan boomed, “tear down this wall!”

Five easy steps for correct punctuation!:

Five easy steps for correct punctuation! Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Add quotation marks. Separate the source phrase from the quote. Capitalize the first word of the direct quotation. Add end marks. Add needed capitalization and punctuation.

Brackets:

Brackets Sometimes you may want to insert something into a quotation for clarification. Place any additional information within square brackets [ ]. By writing that “ he [Homer Barron] liked men" (33), Faulkner drops a hint about the character’s possible sexual orientation but leaves room for interpretation. OR By writing that “ [Homer Barron] liked men" (33), Faulkner drops a hint about the character’s possible sexual orientation but leaves room for interpretation.

Single Quotation Marks:

Single Quotation Marks Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation . In paragraphs: As Louise’s feelings rise to the surface, “She [says] it over and over under her breath: ‘ free, free, free! ’ ” (Chopin 317). On works cited page: Deneau, Daniel P. “Chopin’s ‘ The Story of an Hour. ’ ” The Explicator ….

Block Quotations:

Block Quotations When a quote is four lines or longer , it should be offset (one inch on left) in a block. No quotation marks are used, and the period comes before the parenthetical citation. At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies , Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. (186) With this realization, their childlike innocence is lost.

Ellipses:

Ellipses The ellipses, three dots ( . . . ), indicate that part of a quotation has been left out . Ellipses are useful when you want to include only the most relevant words of a quotation; however, any omission must not distort the quotation's original meaning. For omissions in the middle of a sentence , use an ellipses. For example, “ Sir Walter [Scott] had so large a hand in making Southern character . . . that he is in great measure responsible for the war ” (Twain 87).

Ellipses, continued:

Ellipses , continued For omissions at the end of a sentence , use an ellipses followed by a period . According to Zephron Cochran, “Warp drive is a creation that will change multitudes of lives . . . . ” If a parenthetical citation follows an omission at the end of a sentence , place the period after the final parenthesis. Of the many fruits available, Abraham Lincoln thought “apples to be the most nutritious . . . ” (47) .

Ellipses, continued:

Ellipses , continued When omitting a long passage , use a single line of spaced dots as long as the preceding line. There were many people vying for the president’s attention, but he seemed immune to their pleas. It was as if he were standing alone in a huge room, without the distractions of voices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By the time he finally noticed her, she had forgotten what her question was. She stared at him blankly. (344-5) Omissions immediately following an introductory statement do not need an ellipses. In Harris’ book, one-to-one conferences are “one of the most important aspects of teaching” (2).

Other punctuation with citations:

Other punctuation with citations When a comma or other punctuation is needed with a parenthetical citation , treat its placement just as you would that of a period with a citation. Although “a human being in perfection ought always to preserve a calm and peaceful mind” (Shelley 49), some of the world’s greatest geniuses admit they work best under stress.

Quotations Exercise (50 pts.): Add necessary punctuation to each sentence. Do not change any word. The original reads: And yet she had loved him—sometimes.:

Quotations Exercise (50 pts.) : Add necessary punctuation to each sentence. Do not change any word. The original reads: And yet she had loved him—sometimes. And yet she had loved him—sometimes Kate Chopin writes (317) Kate Chopin writes And yet she had loved him—sometimes (317) And yet Kate Chopin writes she had loved him—sometimes (317) Thinking of her husband, Louise admits that she had loved him—sometimes (Chopin 317) Louise Mallard confesses And yet she had loved her husband—sometimes (Chopin 317)

Quotations Exercise (50 points): Copy and punctuate these sentences.:

Quotations Exercise (50 points) : Copy and punctuate these sentences. Novelist Mary Shelley writes “I had a dearer pleasure than this, which was the formation of castles in the air” (12) When Mary Shelley writes “I had a dearer pleasure than this, which was the formation of castles in the air” (12) she means daydreaming “I had a dearer pleasure than this, which was the formation of castles in the air” writes Mary Shelley (12) Daydreaming has been referred to as “the formation of castles in the air” (Shelley 12)

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