Basic_First_Aid (1)

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Basic First Aid:

Basic First Aid


Seizures/Convulsions Seizures: mild to severe brief blackouts, involuntary movements, sudden falls periods of confused behavior involuntary muscle contractions. Grand Mal seizures uncontrollable muscle movements (jerking or spasms) Rigidity loss of consciousness loss of bladder and/or bowel control breathing that stops temporarily.


Seizures/Convulsions Stay with the person – consider calling 911 Protect the person from injury Move all furniture or equipment that is nearby Do not hold or restrain the person Do not put anything in the person’s mouth Loosen clothing Roll the person on his/her side After the seizure activity has stopped : Perform rescue breathing if person is blue or not breathing (if CPR certified) If breathing, lay person on side


FAINTING Pale, sweaty, slow pulse Lay person on back with head to the side and legs elevated DO NOT give anything by mouth If person doesn’t wake up right away , call 911


Choking Partial airway obstruction with good air exchange Forceful cough Wheezing in between breaths *Stay with the person and encourage them to cough


Choking Partial airway obstruction with poor air exchange Weak, ineffective cough High-pitched noises while breathing * This type of obstruction should be dealt with as if it were a complete obstruction


Choking Complete airway obstruction Unable to breathe, speak or cough Clutching at his/her throat (universal distress signal for choking) If the person is still conscious, perform Heimlich maneuver If the person becomes unconscious, call 911 and continue helping if familiar with First Aid/CPR

Heimlich Maneuver :

Heimlich Maneuver

Major Bleeding: Direct Pressure:

Major Bleeding: D irect Pressure Use a sterile dressing or clean cloth Fold to form pad Apply pressure directly over wound Fasten with bandage; knot over wound If bleeding continues, add second pressure dressing

Bleeding: Pressure Points:

Bleeding: Pressure Points Apply pressure where artery lies near skin over bone.

Bleeding: Pressure Points:

Bleeding: Pressure Points Use pressure point closest to wound, between wound and heart Superficial arteries: use flat surface of several fingers Femoral artery, use heel of one hand


Tourniquet Absolute last resort in controlling bleeding: Life or the limb Once a tourniquet is applied, it is not to be removed , only by a doctor


Cuts Apply pressure with a clean cloth, elevation Can be cleaned better when bleeding stops Large and deep: seek medical attention Maintain pressure Minor cuts Soap and water, peroxide cover with antibiotic ointment and dressing. If cut may need sutures, seek medical care as soon as possible Consider “Super Glue”

Works on People, Too!:

Works on People, Too!

Abrasions :

Abrasions Must get wound clean Hold pressure with or without “numbing” medicine till bleeding stops Clean wound with soap and water in 1 -2 hours Wrap in dry bandage Clean at least twice a day till healed

Puncture Wounds:

Puncture Wounds DO NOT remove large objects such as knives or sticks, call 911 For minor wounds, wash with soap and water Remove splinters? Antibiotic ointment Bandage The person may need a tetanus booster injection

Stinging Insects:

Stinging Insects Remove the stinger with the scraping motion of a fingernail DO NOT pull the stinger out Put a cold compress on the bite Hydrocortisone cream Benadryl Check for allergies If hives, paleness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, tightness in chest, breathing difficulty, or collapse occur, call 911. For spider bites, call the Poison Control Center or hospital



How to use an Epipen::

How to use an Epipen: Pull off gray safety cap. Place black tip on thigh, at right angle to leg Press hard into thigh until Auto-Injector mechanism functions Hold in place for several seconds The EpiPen unit should then be removed and discarded Massage the injection area for 10 seconds.


Blisters Leave intact Puncture under clean conditions Cleanse area, hands, needle Puncture near edge Antibiotic ointment and bandage

EYE Injuries:

EYE Injuries DON’T RUB!!! Wash out (chemicals, dirt) Patch or compress or keep closed Send the person directly to an emergency room.


NOSEBLEEDS With person sitting, squeeze nostrils together between thumb and index finger for 10 minutes Ice on forehead If bleeding persists, seek medical attention– but maintain pressure


TEETH If knocked out, find the tooth and rinse it gently without touching the root Insert and gently hold the tooth in its socket or transport the tooth in cow’s milk If broken, save the pieces. Gently clean the injured area with warm water. Place a cold compress to reduce swelling. Send the person directly to the dentist or an emergency room. Time is important!

Major Fractures:

Major Fractures Other injuries – major accident Broken skin, major deformity Heavy bleeding Loss of circulation Neck, head, hip, pelvis, upper leg

Major Fractures:

Major Fractures Stop any bleeding Immobilize Splint Don’t try to re-align Treat for shock Head down Legs up?


Dislocations Don't delay medical care Don't move the joint Nerves, blood vessels and ligaments Put ice on the injured joint

Fractures and Sprains: PRICE:

Fractures and Sprains: PRICE P-- p rotect the injured limb from further injury by not using the joint R-- r est the injured limb I-- i ce the area C-- c ompress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage E-- e levate the injured limb whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling


Sunburn Avoidance Cover up: hats, sleeves Sunscreen Cool bath or shower Leave blisters intact Tylenol, Advil, Solarcaine

Heat Illness:

Heat Illness AVOID The Problem DRINK even if not “thirsty” Lots of clear urine Heat Cramps: rest, cool down, DRINK Heat Exhaustion = threatened Heatstroke Nausea, faint Pale, clammy & cool Give fluids, active cooling Heatstroke  Call 911 Hot, shock, unconscious

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