MS EXCEL 2007 – A Beginner's Tutorial: MS EXCEL 2007 – A Beginner's Tutorial Excel: Excel Agenda Excel - Overview Creating Simple Formulas Creating Complex Formulas Working with Basic Functions Sorting, Grouping, and Filtering Cells Formatting Tables The Fill Handle Data Forms Working with Worksheets Using Conditional Formatting EXCEL: EXCEL Excel,is the world’s most widely used spreadsheet program, and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. Much of the appeal of Excel is due to the fact that it’s so versatile. Number crunching: Create budgets, analyze survey results, and perform just about any type of financial analysis you can think of. Creating charts: Create a wide variety of highly customizable charts. Organizing lists: Use the row-and-column layout to store lists efficiently. Accessing other data: Import data from a wide variety of sources. Creating graphical dashboards: Summarize a large amount of business information in a concise format. Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment Introduction Before you begin creating spreadsheets in Excel, you may want to set up your Excel environment and become familiar with a few key tasks and features such as how to minimize and maximize the Ribbon, configure the Quick Access toolbar, switch page views, and access your Excel options. Exploring the Excel Environment The tabbed Ribbon menu system is how you navigate through Excel and access the various Excel commands. If you have used previous versions of Excel, the Ribbon system replaces the traditional menus. Above the Ribbon in the upper-left corner is the Microsoft Office Button . From here, you can access important options such as New, Save, Save As, and Print. By default the Quick Access Toolbar is pinned next to the Microsoft Office Button, and includes commands such as Undo and Redo. Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment To Zoom In and Out: Locate the zoom bar in the bottom, right corner. Left-click the slider and drag it to the left to zoom out and to the right to zoom in. To Scroll Horizontally in a Worksheet: Locate the horizontal scroll bar in the bottom, right corner. Left-click the bar and move it from left to right. To Change Page Views: Locate the Page View options in the bottom, right corner. The Page View options are Normal, Page Layout, and Page Break. Left-click an option to select it. The default is Normal View Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment To Add Commands to the Quick Access Toolbar: Click the arrow to the right of the Quick Access toolbar. Select the command you wish to add from the drop-down list. It will appear in the Quick Access toolbar. OR Select More Commands from the menu and a dialog box appears. Select the command you wish to add. Click the Add button. Click OK . The Save, Undo, and Redo commands appear by default in the Quick Access toolbar. You may wish to add other commands to make using specific Excel features more convenient for you. Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment To Minimize and Maximize the Ribbon: Click the drop-down arrow next to the Quick Access toolbar. Select Minimize Ribbon from the list. The Ribbon disappears. To maximize the ribbon, click the arrow again and select Minimize the Ribbon to toggle the feature off. You can also minimize and maximize the Ribbon by right-clicking anywhere in the main menu and selecting Minimize the Ribbon in the menu that appears. The new, tabbed Ribbon system replaces traditional menus in Excel 2007. It is designed to be responsive to your current task and easy to use; however, you can choose to minimize the Ribbon if you would prefer to use different menus or keyboard shortcuts. Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment The Microsoft Office Button The Microsoft Office Button appears at the top of the Excel window. When you left-click the button, a menu appears. From this menu you can create a new spreadsheet, open existing files, save files in a variety of ways, and print. You can also add security features, send, publish, and close files. Setting Up Your Excel Environment: Setting Up Your Excel Environment To Change the Default Excel Options: Click the Excel Options button. A dialog box will appear. Select a category on the left to access different Excel options. Modify any of the default settings. Click OK. As you learn more about Excel and become proficient at using it, you may want to modify some of the settings. As a beginning user , it is usually best to leave the default settings . Starting a Workbook: Starting a Workbook Introduction You will need to know how to insert text and numbers into Excel workbooks to be able to use it to calculate, analyze, and organize data. In this lesson, you will learn how to create a new workbook, insert and delete text, navigate a worksheet, and save an Excel workbook. Starting a Workbook: Starting a Workbook To Create a New, Blank Workbook: Left-click the Microsoft Office Button . Select New . The New Workbook dialog box opens and Blank Workbook is highlighted by default. Starting a Workbook: Starting a Workbook Click Create . A new, blank workbook appears in the window. When you first open Excel, the software opens to a new, blank workbook. Starting a Workbook: Starting a Workbook To Insert Text: Left-click a cell to select it. Each rectangle in the worksheet is called a cell . As you select a cell, the cell address appears in the Name Box . Enter text into the cell using your keyboard. The text appears in the cell and in the formula bar . Each cell has a name, or a cell address based on the column and row it is in. For example, this cell is C3 since it is where column C and row 3 intersect. Starting a Workbook: Starting a Workbook To Edit or Delete Text: Select the cell. Press the Backspace key on your keyboard to delete text and make a correction. Press the Delete key to delete the entire contents of a cell. You can also make changes to and delete text from the formula bar . Just select the cell and place your insertion point in the formula bar. To Move Through a Worksheet Using the Keyboard: Press the Tab key to move to the right of the selected cell. Press the Shift key and then the Tab key to move to the left of the selected cell. Use the Page Up and Page Down keys to navigate the worksheet. Use the arrow keys. To Save the Workbook: Left-click the Microsoft Office Button . Select Save or Save As . Save As allows you to name the file and choose a location to save the spreadsheet. Choose Save As if you'd like to save the file for the first time or if you'd like to save the file as a different name. Select Save if the file has already been named. Starting a Workbook: Starting a Workbook You can save a workbook in many ways, but the two most common are as an Excel Workbook , which saves it with a 2007 file extension, and as an Excel 97-2003 Workbook , which saves the file in a compatible format so people who have earlier versions of Excel can open the file. Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells Introduction When you open a new, blank workbook, the cells, columns, and rows are set to a default size . You do have the ability to change the size of each, and to insert new columns, rows, and cells, as needed. In this lesson, you will learn various methods to modify the column width and row height, in addition to how to insert new columns, rows, and cells. Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells Columns, Rows, and Cells To Modify Column Width: Position the cursor over the column line in the column heading and a double arrow will appear. Left-click the mouse and drag the cursor to the right to increase the column width or to the left to decrease the column width. Release the mouse button. OR Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells Left-click the column heading of a column you'd like to modify. The entire column will appear highlighted Click the Format command in the Cells group on the Home tab. A menu will appear Select Column Width to enter a specific column measurement . Select AutoFit Column Width to adjust the column so all the text will fit. Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells To Modify the Row Height: Position the cursor over the row line you want to modify and a double arrow will appear. Left-click the mouse and drag the cursor upward to decrease the row height or downward to increase the row height. Release the mouse button. Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells Click the Format command in the Cells group on the Home tab. A menu will appear. Select Row Height to enter a specific row measurement . Select AutoFit Row Height to adjust the row so all the text will fit. Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells To Insert Rows: Select the row below where you want the new row to appear. Click the Insert command in the Cells group on the Home tab. The row will appear The new row always appears above the selected row. Make sure that you select the entire row below where you want the new row to appear and not just the cell . If you select just the cell and then click Insert, only a new cell will appear. Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells: Modifying Columns, Rows, & Cells To Insert Columns: Select the column to the right of where you want the column to appear. Click the Insert command in the Cells group on the Home tab. The column will appear. The new column always appears to the left of the selected column. For example, if you want to insert a column between September and October, select the October column and click the Insert command. Make sure that you select the entire column to the right of where you want the new column to appear and not just the cell . If you select just the cell and then click Insert, only a new cell will appear To Delete Rows and Columns: Select the row or column you’d like to delete. Click the Delete command in the Cells group on the Home tab. Formatting Text: Formatting Text Introduction Once you have entered information into a spreadsheet, you will need to be able to format it. In this lesson, you will learn how to use the bold, italic, and underline commands; modify the font style, size, and color; and apply borders and fill colors. Formatting Text: Formatting Text To Format Text in Bold or Italics: Left-click a cell to select it or drag your cursor over the text in the formula bar to select it. Click the Bold or Italics command. You can select entire columns and rows, or specific cells. To select the entire column , just left-click the column heading and the entire column will appear as selected. To select specific cells , just left-click a cell and drag your mouse to select the other cells. Then, release the mouse button. Formatting Text: Formatting Text To Format Text as Underlined: Select the cell or cells you want to format. Click the drop-down arrow next to the Underline command. Select the Single Underline or Double Underline option. To Change the Font Style Select the cell or cells you want to format. Left-click the drop-down arrow next to the Font Style box on the Home tab. Select a font style from the list. As you move over the font list, the Live Preview feature previews the font for you in the spreadsheet. Formatting Text: Formatting Text To Change the Font Size: Select the cell or cells you want to format. Left-click the drop-down arrow next to the Font Size box on the Home tab. Select a font size from the list. To Change the Text Color: Select the cell or cells you want to format. Left-click the drop-down arrow next to the Text Color command. A color palette will appear. Select a color from the palette. OR Select More Colors . A dialog box will appear. Select a color. Click OK . Formatting Text: Formatting Text To Add a Border: Select the cell or cells you want to format. Click the drop-down arrow next to the Borders command on the Home tab. A menu will appear with border options. Left-click an option from the list to select it. You can change the line style and color of the border. Formatting Text: Formatting Text To add a Fill Color: Select the cell or cells you want to format. Click the Fill command . A color palette will appear. Select a color. OR Select More Colors . A dialog box will appear. Select a color. Click OK . You can use the fill color feature to format columns and rows, and format a worksheet so that it is easier to read. Formatting Text: Formatting Text To Format Numbers and Dates: Select the cell or cells you want to format. Left-click the drop-down arrow next to the Number Format box. Select one of the options for formatting numbers. By default, the numbers appear in the General category, which means there is no special formatting. In the Number group, you have some other options. For example, you can change the U.S. dollar sign to another currency format, numbers to percents, add commas, and change the decimal location. Working with Cells: Working with Cells Introduction It is important to know how to move information from one cell to another in Excel. Learning the various ways will save you time and make working with Excel easier. Certain methods are more appropriate depending on how much information you need to move and where it will reside on the spreadsheet. In this lesson you will learn how to cut , copy , and paste , as well as drag and drop information. Working with Cells: Working with Cells To Copy and Paste Cell Contents: Select the cell or cells you wish to copy . Click the Copy command in the Clipboard group on the Home tab. The border of the selected cells will change appearance. Select the cell or cells where you want to paste the information. Click the Paste command. The copied information will now appear in the new cells. Working with Cells: Working with Cells To select more than one adjoining cell , left-click one of the cells, drag the cursor until all the cells are selected, and release the mouse button. The copied cell will stay selected until you perform your next task, or you can double-click the cell to deselect it. Working with Cells: Working with Cells To Cut and Paste Cell Contents: Select the cell or cells you wish to copy . Click the Cut command in the Clipboard group on the Home tab. The border of the selected cells will change appearance. Select the cell or cells where you want to paste the information. Click the Paste command. The cut information will be removed from the original cells and now appear in the new cells . Working with Cells: Working with Cells The keyboard shortcut for Paste is the Control Key and the V key. Working with Cells: Working with Cells To Drag and Drop Information: Select the cell or cells you wish to move. Position your mouse pointer near one of the outside edges of the selected cells. The mouse pointer changes from a large, white cross to a black cross with 4 arrows . Left-click and hold the mouse button and drag the cells to the new location. Release the mouse button and the information appears in the new location. Working with Cells: Working with Cells To Use the Fill Handle to Fill Cells: Position your cursor over the fill handle until the large white cross becomes a thin, black cross. Left-click your mouse and drag it until all the cells you want to fill are highlighted. Release the mouse button and all the selected cells are filled with the information from the original cell. The fill handle doesn't always copy information from one cell directly into another cell. Depending on the data entered in the cell, it may fill the data in other ways. For example, if I have the formula =A1+B1 in cell C1, and I use the fill handle to fill the formula into cell C2, the formula doesn't appear the same in C2 as it does in C1. Instead of =A1+B1, you will see =A2+B2. You can use the fill handle to fill cells horizontally or vertically. Slide 38: Creating Complex Formulas Introduction Excel is a spreadsheet application and is intended to be used to calculate and analyze numerical information such as household budgets, company finances, inventory, and more. To do this, you need to understand formulas . In this lesson, we’ll discuss complex formulas that use multiple mathematical operators, and that use absolute and relative references . Slide 39: Creating Complex Formulas Complex Formulas Defined Simple formulas have one mathematical operation. Complex formulas involve more than one mathematical operation. Simple Formula: =2+2 Complex Formula: =2+2*8 To calculate complex formulas correctly, you must perform certain operations before others. This is defined in the order of operations . The Order of Operations The order of mathematical operations is very important. If you enter a formula that contains several operations, Excel knows to work those operations in a specific order. The order of operations is: Operations enclosed in parenthesis Exponential calculations (to the power of) Multiplication and division, whichever comes first Addition and subtraction, whichever comes first A mnemonic that can help you remember this is P lease E xcuse M y D ear A unt S ally (P.E.M.D.A.S). Slide 40: Creating Complex Formulas Example 1 Using this order, let us see how the formula 20/(8-4)*8-2 is calculated in the following breakdown: Example 2 3+3*2=? Is the answer 12 or 9? Well, if you calculated in the order in which the numbers appear, 3+3*2, you'd get the wrong answer, 12. You must follow the order of operations to get the correct answer. Slide 41: Creating Complex Formulas Before moving on, let's explore some more formulas to make sure you understand the order of operations by which Excel calculates the answer 4*2/4 Multiply 4*2 before performing the division operation because the multiplication sign comes before the division sign. The answer is 2. 4/2*4 Divide 4 by 2 before performing the multiplication operation because the division sign comes before the multiplication sign. The answer is 8. 4/(2*4) Perform the operation in parentheses (2*4) first and divide 4 by this result. The answer is 0.5. 4-2*4 Multiply 2*4 before performing the subtraction operation because the multiplication sign is of a higher order than the subtraction sign. The answer is -4. Slide 42: Creating Complex Formulas Excel automatically follows a standard order of operations in a complex formula. If you want a certain portion of the formula to be calculated first, put it in parentheses. Example of How to Write a Complex Formula: Click the cell where you want the formula result to appear. In this example, H6. Type the equal sign (=) to let Excel know a formula is being defined. Type an open parenthesis, or ( Click on the first cell to be included in the formula (G6, for example). Type the addition sign (+) to let Excel know that an add operation is to be performed. Click on the second cell in the formula (G7, for example) Type a close parentheses ). Slide 43: Creating Complex Formulas Type the next mathematical operator, or the division symbol (/) to let Excel know that a division operation is to be performed. Type an open parenthesis, or ( Click on the third cell to be included in the formula (D6, for example). Type the addition sign (+) to let Excel know that an add operation is to be performed. Click on the fourth cell to be included in formula. (D7, for example). Type a close parentheses ). Very Important: Press Enter or click the Enter button on the Formula bar. This step ends the formula. To show fewer decimal places, you can just click the Decrease Decimal place command on the Home tab. Slide 44: Creating Complex Formulas What is an Absolute Reference? In earlier lessons we saw how cell references in formulas automatically adjust to new locations when the formula is pasted into different cells. This is called a relative reference Sometimes, when you copy and paste a formula, you don't want one or more cell references to change. Absolute reference solves this problem. Absolute cell references in a formula always refer to the same cell or cell range in a formula. If a formula is copied to a different location, the absolute reference remains the same. Slide 45: Creating Complex Formulas An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the addition of a dollar sign ($) . It can precede the column reference or the row reference, or both. Examples of absolute referencing include: To Create an Absolute Reference: Select the cell where you wish to write the formula (in this example, H2) Type the equal sign (=) to let Excel know a formula is being defined. Click on the first cell to be included in the formula (F2, for example). Enter a mathematical operator (use the multiplication symbol for this example). Click on the second cell in the formula (C2, for example). Add a $ sign before the C and a $ sign before the 2 to create an absolute reference. Slide 46: Creating Complex Formulas To Create an Absolute Reference: Select the cell where you wish to write the formula (in this example, H2) Type the equal sign (=) to let Excel know a formula is being defined. Click on the first cell to be included in the formula (F2, for example). Enter a mathematical operator (use the multiplication symbol for this example). Click on the second cell in the formula (C2, for example). Add a $ sign before the C and a $ sign before the 2 to create an absolute reference. Slide 47: Creating Complex Formulas Copy the formula into H3. The new formula should read =F3*$C$2. The F2 reference changed to F3 since it is a relative reference, but C2 remained constant since you created an absolute reference by inserting the dollar signs. Slide 48: Working with Basic Functions Basic Functions The Parts of a Function: Each function has a specific order, called syntax , which must be strictly followed for the function to work correctly. Syntax Order: All functions begin with the = sign. After the = sign define the function name (e.g., Sum). Then there will be an argument . An argument is the cell range or cell references that are enclosed by parentheses. If there is more than one argument, separate each by a comma. An example of a function with one argument that adds a range of cells, A3 through A9: An example of a function with more than one argument that calculates the sum of two cell ranges: Excel literally has hundreds of different functions to assist with your calculations. Building formulas can be difficult and time-consuming. Excel's functions can save you a lot of time and headaches. Slide 49: Working with Basic Functions Excel's Different Functions There are many different functions in Excel 2007. Some of the more common functions include: Statistical Functions: SUM - summation adds a range of cells together. AVERAGE - average calculates the average of a range of cells. COUNT - counts the number of chosen data in a range of cells. MAX - identifies the largest number in a range of cells. MIN - identifies the smallest number in a range of cells. Financial Functions: Interest Rates Loan Payments Depreciation Amounts Slide 50: Working with Basic Functions Excel's Different Functions Date and Time functions: DATE - Converts a serial number to a day of the month Day of Week DAYS360 - Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year TIME - Returns the serial number of a particular time HOUR - Converts a serial number to an hour MINUTE - Converts a serial number to a minute TODAY - Returns the serial number of today's date MONTH - Converts a serial number to a month YEAR - Converts a serial number to a year You don't have to memorize the functions but should have an idea of what each can do for you. Slide 51: Working with Basic Functions To Calculate the Sum of a Range of Data Using AutoSum: Select the Formulas tab. Locate the Function Library group. From here, you can access all the available functions. Select the cell where you want the function to appear. In this example, select G42. Select the drop-down arrow next to the AutoSum command. Select Sum . A formula will appear in the selected cell, G42. This formula, =SUM(G2:G41) , is called a function . AutoSum command automatically selects the range of cells from G2 to G41, based on where you inserted the function. You can alter the cell range, if necessary. Press the Enter key or Enter button on the formula bar. The total will appear. Slide 52: Working with Basic Functions To Edit a Function: Select the cell where the function is defined . Insert the cursor in the formula bar. Edit the range by deleting and changing necessary cell numbers. Click the Enter icon Slide 53: Working with Basic Functions To Calculate the Sum of Two Arguments: Select the cell where you want the function to appear . In this example, G44. Click the Insert Function command on the Formulas tab. A dialog box appears. SUM is selected by default. Slide 54: Working with Basic Functions Click OK and the Function Arguments dialog box appears so that you can enter the range of cells for the function. Insert the cursor in the Number 1 field. In the spreadsheet, select the first range of cells . In this example, G21 through G26. The argument appears in the Number 1 field. To select the cells, left-click cell G21 and drag the cursor to G26, and then release the mouse button. Insert the cursor in the Number 2 field. Slide 55: Working with Basic Functions In the spreadsheet, select the second range of cells . In this example, G40 through G41. The argument appears in the Number 2 field. Notice that both arguments appear in the function in cell G44 and the formula bar when G44 is selected. Click OK in the dialog box and the sum of the two ranges is calculated. To Calculate the Average of a Range of Data: Select the cell where you want the function to appear. Click the drop-down arrow next to the AutoSum command. Select Average. Click on the first cell (in this example, C8) to be included in the formula. Left-click and drag the mouse to define a cell range (C8 through cell C20, in this example). Click the Enter icon to calculate the average. Slide 56: Working with Basic Functions Accessing Excel 2007 Functions To Access Other Functions in Excel: Using the point-click-drag method, select a cell range to be included in the formula. On the Formulas tab, click on the drop-down part of the AutoSum button. If you don't see the function you want to use (Sum, Average, Count, Max, Min), display additional functions by selecting More Functions . The Insert Function dialog box opens. There are three ways to locate a function in the Insert Function dialog box: You can type a question in the Search for a function box and click GO , or You can scroll through the alphabetical list of functions in the Select a function field, or You can select a function category in the Select a category drop-down list and review the corresponding function names in the Select a function field. Select the function you want to use and then click the OK button. Slide 57: Vlookup Function The VLOOKUP function The VLOOKUP function looks up the value in the first column of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table column. The lookup table is arranged vertically (which explains the V in the function’s name). The syntax for the VLOOKUP function is VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup) The VLOOKUP function’s arguments are as follows: lookup_value : The value to be looked up in the first column of the lookup table. table_array: The range that contains the lookup table. col_index_num: The column number within the table from which the matching value is returned. range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. (If an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned.) If FALSE, VLOOKUP will search for an exact Slide 58: Vlookup Function Looking up an exact value VLOOKUP don’t necessarily require an exact match between the value to be looked up and the values in the lookup table. An example is looking up a tax rate in a tax table. In some cases, you may require a perfect match. For example, when looking up an employee number, you would require a perfect match for the number. To look up an exact value only, use the VLOOKUP function with the optional fourth argument set to FALSE. =VLOOKUP(B1,EmpList,2,FALSE) Because the last argument for the VLOOKUP function is FALSE, the function returns a value only if an exact match is found. If the value is not found, the formula returns #N/A. Slide 59: Vlookup Function Building the function step by step: 1. Type the following code: =vlookup( 2. Type the address of the cell containing the value that you wish to look for in the table. 3. Type the range of the table to look inside, (or better: Name the table before starting with the function, and type now its name). Remember: don’t include the table’s heading row. 4. Type the column number from which you want to retrieve the result. 5. Type the word FALSE which means: “Please find me exactly the value of the cell mentioned in step 2. (Don’t round it down to the closest match)”. Type the word TRUE which means “Please find me an approx. Match 6. Close the bracket and hit the [Enter] key. Slide 60: Sorting, Grouping, and Filtering Introduction A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet can contain a great deal of information. With more rows and columns than previous versions, Excel 2007 gives you the ability to analyze and work with an enormous amount of data . To most effectively use this data, you may need to manipulate this data in different ways. In this lesson, you will learn how to sort , group , and filter data in various ways that will enable you to most effectively and efficiently use spreadsheets to locate and analyze information. Slide 61: Sorting, Grouping A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet can contain a great deal of information. Sometimes you may find that you need to reorder or sort that information, create groups, or filter information to be able to use it most effectively. Sorting Sorting lists is a common spreadsheet task that allows you to easily reorder your data. The most common type of sorting is alphabetical ordering, which you can do in ascending or descending order. To Sort in Alphabetical Order: Select a cell in the column you want to sort (In this example, we choose a cell in column A). Click the Sort & Filter command in the Editing group on the Home tab. Select Sort A to Z . Now the information in the Category column is organized in alphabetical order. You can Sort in reverse alphabetical order by choosing Sort Z to A in the list. Slide 62: Sorting, Grouping To Sort from Smallest to Largest: Select a cell in the column you want to sort (a column with numbers). Click the Sort & Filter command in the Editing group on the Home tab. Select From Smallest to Largest . Now the information is organized from the smallest to largest amount. You can sort in reverse numerical order by choosing From Largest to Smallest in the list. To Sort Multiple Levels: Click the Sort & Filter command in the Editing group on the Home tab. Select Custom Sort from the list to open the dialog box. OR Select the Data tab. Locate the Sort and Filter group. Click the Sort command to open the Custom Sort dialog box. From here, you can sort by one item, or multiple items. Slide 63: Sorting and Grouping Click the drop-down arrow in the Column Sort by field, and choose one of the options. In this example, Category. Choose what to sort on . In this example, we'll leave the default as Value . Choose how to order the results . Leave it as A to Z so it is organized alphabetically. Click Add Level to add another item to sort by. Slide 64: Sorting and Grouping Select an option in the Column Then by field. In this example, we chose Unit Cost. Choose what to sort on . In this example, we'll leave the default as Value . Choose how to order the results . Leave it as smallest to largest .Click OK . The spreadsheet has been sorted. All the categories are organized in alphabetical order, and within each category, the unit cost is arranged from smallest to largest. Slide 65: Sorting and Grouping Grouping Cells Using the Subtotal Command Grouping is a really useful Excel feature that gives you control over how the information is displayed. You must sort before you can group . In this section we will learn how to create groups using the Subtotal command. To Create Groups with Subtotals: Select any cell with information in it. Click the Subtotal command. The information in your spreadsheet is automatically selected and the Subtotal dialog box appears. Decide how you want things grouped. In this example, we will organize by Category . Select a function . In this example, we will leave the SUM function selected. Select the column you want the Subtotal to appear. In this example, Total Cost is selected by default. Click OK . The selected cells are organized into groups with subtotals . Slide 66: Sorting andGrouping To Collapse or Display the Group: Click the black minus sign, which is the hide detail icon, to collapse the group. Click the black plus sign, which is the show detail icon, to expand the group. Use the Show Details and Hide Details commands in the Outline group to collapse and display the group, as well. Slide 67: Sorting, Grouping, and Filtering Cells To Ungroup Select Cells: Select the cells you want to remove from the group. Click the Ungroup command. Select Ungroup from the list. A dialog box will appear. Click OK . To Ungroup the Entire Worksheet: Select all the cells with grouping. Click Clear Outline from the menu. Slide 68: Filtering Cells Filtering, or temporarily hiding, data in a spreadsheet very easy. This allows you to focus on specific spreadsheet entries. To Filter Data: Click the Filter command on the Data tab. Drop-down arrows will appear beside each column heading. Click the drop-down arrow next to the heading you would like to filter. For example, if you would like to only view data regarding Flavors , click the drop-down arrow next to Category . Slide 69: Uncheck Select All . Choose Flavor. Click OK. All other data will be filtered, or hidden, and only the Flavor data is visible. Filtering Cells Slide 70: Filtering Cells To Clear One Filter: Select one of the drop-down arrows next to a filtered column. Choose Clear Filter From... To remove all filters, click the Filter command. Filtering may look a little like grouping, but the difference is that now I can filter on another field, if I want to. For example, let’s say I want to see only the Vanilla-related flavors. I can click the drop-down arrow next to Item, and select Text Filters . From the menu, I’ll choose Contains because I want to find any entry that has the word vanilla in it. A dialog box appears. We’ll type Vanilla, and then click OK. Now we can see that the data has been filtered again and that only the Vanilla-related flavors appear. Slide 71: Conditional Formatting Introduction Imagine you have a spreadsheet with thousands of rows of data. It would be extremely difficult to see patterns and trends just from examining the raw data. Excel gives us several tools that will make this task easier. One of these tools is called conditional formatting . With conditional formatting, you can apply formatting to one or more cells based on the value of the cell. You can highlight interesting or unusual cell values, and visualize the data using formatting such as data bars. In this lesson, you will learn how to apply, modify, and delete conditional formatting rules. Slide 72: Conditional Formatting The Conditional Formatting Options You have many conditional formatting rules, or options, that you can apply to cells in your spreadsheet. Each rule will affect selected cells differently. Before you choose a formatting rule, you need to identify what questions you are trying to answer. For example, in a sales spreadsheet, you might want to identify the salespeople with lower than average sales. To do this, you need to choose a conditional formatting rule that will show you this answer. Not all of the options will provide you with this information. Some of the Conditional Formatting Options Include: Highlight Cell Rules: This rule highlights specific cells based on your option choice. For example, you can choose for Excel to highlight cells that are greater than, less than, or equal to a number, and between two numbers. Also, you can choose for Excel to highlight cells that contain specific text, including a specific date. If you choose this option, a dialog box will appear, and you will have to specify the cells to highlight, and the color you would like to highlight the cells. Slide 73: Conditional Formatting Top/Bottom Rules: This conditional formatting option highlights cell values that meet specific criteria, such as top or bottom 10%, above average, and below average. If you choose this option, a dialog box will appear, and you will have to specify the cells to highlight, and the color you would like to highlight the cells Slide 74: Conditional Formatting Data Bars: This is an interesting option that formats the selected cells with colored bars. The length of the data bar represents the value in the cell. The longer the bar, the higher the value. Slide 75: Conditional Formatting Color Scales: This option applies a two or three color gradient to the cells. Different shades and colors represent specific values Slide 76: Conditional Formatting To Apply Conditional Formatting: Select the cells you would like to format. Select the Home tab. Locate the Styles group. Click the Conditional Formatting command. A menu will appear with your formatting options. Select one of the options to apply it to the selected cells. A cascading menu will appear Slide 77: Conditional Formatting An additional dialog box may appear, depending on the option you choose. If so, make the necessary choices, and click OK. Slide 78: Conditional Formatting To Remove Conditional Formatting Rules: Click the Conditional Formatting command. Select Clear Rules . A cascading menu appears. Choose to clear rules from the entire worksheet or the selected cells . To Manage Conditional Formatting Rules: Click the Conditional Formatting command. Select Manage Rules from the menu. The Conditional Formatting Rules Manager dialog box will appear. From here you can edit a rule, delete a rule, or change the order of rules. Slide 79: Data Forms in Excel If your spreadsheet is too big to manage, and you constantly have to scroll back and forward just to enter data, then a Data Form could make your life easier. To see what a Data Form is, we'll construct a simple spreadsheet. But a data form is just a way to quickly enter data into a cell. It is used when the spreadsheet is too big for the screen. To get a clearer idea of what a data form is, try this. Enter January in Cell A1 of a new spreadsheet AutoFill the rest of the months to December Now, highlight the columns A1 to L1 (click on the letter A and drag to letter L) On the Home tab in Excel, locate the Cells panel On the Cells panel, click the Format item From the Format menu, click Width Enter a value of say 20 for the Column Width, and click OK Some of your months should disappear from the spreadsheet The problem is, if you have to enter data under each month, you'd have to scroll across to complete the row. And then scroll back again to start a new row. Instead of doing this, we'll create a data form. You then enter data in the form to complete a row on your spreadsheet. No more scrolling back and forth! Slide 80: Data Forms in Excel In the version of Excel 2007 we have, Data Forms have been hidden. They used to be sitting on the Data menu. Now they are not. In fact, quite a few menu options have disappeared in Excel 2007 and Excel 2010. To find Data Forms, click on the Office button in the top left of Excel, for 2007 users. From the Office button menu, click on Excel Options : Slide 81: Data Forms in Excel When you click the Excel Options button, you'll see this dialogue box popping up: Click the Customization item on the left in Excel 2007. The idea is that you can place any items you like on the Quick Access toolbar at the top of Excel. You pick one from the list, and then click the Add button in the middle. Slide 82: Data Forms in Excel To add the Data Form option to the Quick Access Toolbar, click the drop down list where it says Choose Commands From . You should see this (we've chopped a few options off, in the image below): Click on Commands Not in the Ribbon . The list box will change: Slide 83: Data Forms in Excel From the Commands Not in the Ribbon list, select Form . Now click the Add button in the Middle. The list box on the right will then look something like this one: Explore the other items you can add to the Quick Access Toolbar. You might find your favourite in there somewhere! When you click OK on the Excel Options dialogue box, you'll be returned to Excel. Look at the Quick Access toolbar, and you should see your new item: Back to the spreadsheet. Type any number you like in cell A2, under January. Then type a number in cell B2 for February. Now highlight the columns A to L again. This is so that Excel will know which is a column heading and which is the data. Click the Form item you have just added to the Quick Access toolbar: You should then see this: Slide 84: Data Forms in Excel All the Columns in the spreadsheet are now showing. Enter numbers for the other months. To start a new row in your spreadsheet, you just click the New button on the right.