Spring Grammar Book

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Spring Grammar Book:

Spring Grammar Book Javier

El Futuro:

El Futuro é emos ás á án ENDINGS The future is used to describe events that will happen in the future. All verbs follow the conjugating pattern and have the same endings even for irregulars. Irregulars include Caber Haber Poder Saber Tener And more!

Conditional:

Conditional The conditional is used to say what should, could, or would happen. Has similar irregualrs as the future. ía íamos ías ía ían

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect Used to say what has occurred, generally talking about very recent events. Made by conjugating the word “Haber” to make a past participle. AR verb ending = ado IR verb ending = ido

Present Perfect Irregulars:

Present Perfect Irregulars Abrir - abierto Cubrir - Cubierto Decir - Dicho Escribir - Escrito Hacer - hecho Poner - puesto Romper- Roto Volver - vuelto

Relative Pronouns:

Relative Pronouns Used to connect short sentences. Relative pronouns: Que , cual , quien / quienes , cuyo Que is most commonly used as refers to people or things. Cual can be used in place of que in more formal situations

Que vs Cual:

Que vs Cual Similar to ser and estar , Que and cual both mean what and which but for different reasons. Que is used for general info Cual is used for specific info.

The Neuter Lo:

The Neuter Lo The neuter lo is used to show characteristics and ideas. It is placed with an adjective to give meaning. To give a more accurate description of more or less the lo is combined with mas or menos .

Subjunctive in adjective clause:

Subjunctive in adjective clause When something is uncertain it falls into the Subjunctive Conjugated similar to the noun clause when in the present tense Also when the antecedent is a negative pronoun the subjunctive may be used as well.

Past Subjunctive:

Past Subjunctive The past subjunctive is formed by dropping the – ron ending from the ustedes / ellos / ellas form of the preterite form of verbs and adding the past subjunctive endings EX: Caminara Caminaramos Caminaras Caminara Caminaron Caminar

Comparisons and Superlatives:

Comparisons and Superlatives When comparing inequal things you use mas / menos +(adjective, adverb, noun)+ que (verb)+ mas / menos que When comparing equal things Tan+(adjective, adverb)+ como or Tanto /a(s)+[noun]+ como [verb]+ tanto como Superlatives: Describing when somethings the best or worst El/la/los/ las +[noun]+ mas / menos +[adjective]+de

Adverbs:

Adverbs Used to describe how, when, and where actions take place. They generally are placed before the verbs they are modifying and also precede adjectives or other adverbs Formed by adding the suffix – mente to the feminine singular form of an adjective. If two or more adverbs modify the same verb, only the final adverb uses the suffix - mente Using con+(noun) is commonly used to replace using long adverbs that end in - mente

Diminutives and Augmentatives:

Diminutives and Augmentatives Used to emphasize size or express meaning. Diminutives and Augmentatives are formed by adding a suffix to the root of nouns or adjectives, and adverbs The most common diminutive suffixes are forms of – ito /a and – illo /a EX: Casita- Little House Most words that end in –e,-n, or, -r use the forms – cito /a, or cillo /a The most common augmentative suffixes are forms of –on/- ona , - ote /- ota , and – azo /- aza EX: Arbolote - Big tree

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect To create the present perfect you use the present tense of the verb haber and add it to a verb with the ending of ado or ido . Haber he hemos has ha han + Verb ending in ido or ado

Present Perfect Subjunctive:

Present Perfect Subjunctive Is used to refer to recently completed actions or past actions that still bear relavance in the present Express will, emotion, doubt, or uncertainty the present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and a past participle Perder Haya perdido Hayamos perdido Hayas perdido Haya perdido Hayan perdido

Se: Passive:

Se: Passive The reflexive pronoun se is often used as a substitute for the passive voice when the person performing the action is not stated. When the passive se refers to a specific person(s), the personal a is used and the verb is always singular

Se: Impersonal:

Se: Impersonal Se can be used with third person singular verbs in impersonal constructions where the subject of the sentence is indefinite. In english , the words one, people, you, or they are often used instead Constructions with the impersonal se are often used on signs and warnings

Time Expressions with Hacer:

Time Expressions with Hacer To form you Hace + (period of time) + que + (verb in present/ preterite /imperfect tense) Using the respective verb tense to fit the form you need EX: Hace un año que estudio español . I have been studying Spanish for one year.

The Future Perfect:

The Future Perfect Is formed with the future of haber and a past participle Used to express what will have happened at a certain point May also express supposition or probability regarding a past action Perder Habre perdido Habrmos perdido Habras perdido Habra perdido Habran perdido

The Conditional Perfect:

The Conditional Perfect Formed with conditional of haber and a past participle Used to express what would have occurred but did not Probability or conjecture about the past Subir Habria subido Habriamos subido Habrias subido Habria subido Habrian subido

Si clauses:

Si clauses Express a condition upon which another condition or event depends Sentences with si are often hypothetical statements Contain subordinate clause and a main clause The si clause may be the first or second clause in a sentence Similar to the word if in English

Transitional Expressions:

Transitional Expressions To narrate time and sequence- al final, al mismo tiempo , al principo Compare and contrast ideas and details- ademas , al contrario , al mismo tiempo Express cause and effect relationships- asi que , como , dado que

PowerPoint Presentation:

Pero : Used to introduce contradictions or qualifications Means but (in the sense of however) Sino: Used to introduce contradictions or qualifications Means but (in the sense of but rather or on the contrary) PERO vs SINO

The Passive Voice:

The Passive Voice Recipient of the action now becomes the subject of the sentence Passive statements emphasize what was done or the person that was acted upon (recipient) + ser + (past participle) + por + (agent)

Negative and Indefinite Expression:

Negative and Indefinite Expression Indefinite words refer to people and things that are not specific Negative words deny something’s existence or contradict statements EX: Nadie , Nunca The personal a is used before negative and indefinite words

Infinitive Uses:

Infinitive Uses Commonly used after the other conjugated verbs Frequently used after deber , decidir , desear , necesitar , pensar , poder , preferir , querer , and, saber Many verbs of influence may also be followed by the infinitive

Prepositions:

Prepositions a can mean to, at, for, upon, and by Introduces an indirect object Hacia means toward or to when referring to moving. With time, hacia means approximately, around, about, or toward Con means with but can also mean but, even though, or in spite of

Prepositions Cont.:

Prepositions Cont. Desde expresses direction from and time since En corresponds to in, on, into, onto, by, and, at Entre means between and among Hasta means as far as, until, and up to Sin means without

PowerPoint Presentation:

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