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Javier Polhemus GRAMMAR BOOK

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Table of Contents El presente Irregular Yo forms Irregulars(- car,-gar,-zar ) Irregular Verbs Ser Estar Gustar y Verbs como Gustar Preterito vs imperfecto El subjunctivo Mandatos Object Pronouns Possesive Adjectives and Pronouns Demonstrative Adj. and Pronouns Reflexive verbs Por y Para To become: Hacerse , Ponerse , Volverse , y llegar a ser

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Presente ( - ar , - er , - ir ) - a r - ir - er -o -as -a - amos - aís -an -o -o - es - es -e -e - i mos - e mos - e ís - ís -en -en Hablan Hablamos Hablas Hablo Habaís Hablan vivo vives vive vivimos vivís viven como comes come comemos comeís comen Hablar -to speak Vivir -to live Comer- to eat

Irregular Yo Forms:

Irregular Yo Forms

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Irregulars with the –go, - zco , and - oy are different in the way they are congugated , in the fact that the yo ending is much different then other verbs Irregulars( - car,-gar,-zar -car= -co - qué -gar= -go - gué - zar = - zo - cé EXAMPLE- Conducir conduzco conduces conduce conducimos conducís conducen

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Stem changers are verbs the are different in the stem than the average word although are usually easily predictable. Stems may change in the ways below. Irregular verbs e ie e i o u e u u e Also known as boot verbs for the boot shape the changed stems make in the chart. This is because the nosotros and vosotros never undergo a stem change. Contiendes Contiendo Contiende Condendemos Contendéis Contienden EXAMPLE Notice the e to ie change

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Soy somos Eres ------------ es Son

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Estoy estamos Estas ------------ esta estan

Verbos como Gustar:

Verbos como Gustar Aburrir Fascinar Bastar Importar Interesar Molestar Disgustar Parecar Encantar quedar Me Nos Te Le Les + Singular ending- a Plural Ending- an

Mandatos :

Mandatos Affirmative Negative Irregulars Di Hiaz Ve Pon Sal Se Ten Ven

Object Pronouns:

Object Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns To whom or for whom Precedes verb unless verb is infinitive then it can be attached. Me,Te,Le,Nos,Les Direct Object Pronouns Precedes verb unless infinitive then can be attached Me,Te,Lo,La , Nos , Los/ Lan Double Object Pronouns Indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence Le and les change to se when they are used with , lo,la,los,las


Subjunctive Formed by dropping the o from yo form of present indicatives and adding subjunctive endings e emos es e en Ar Er / Ir a amos as a an W E D D I N G ISHING motions oubt isbelief mpersonal egation od

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Possesive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns Used to show ownership Agree with the noun that they are modifying Mi(s) Tu (s) Su(s) Nuestro /a/s/as Used with the definate article Mine- mio Yours- tuyo Yours- suyo Ours- nuestro

Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns:

Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns FAR OVER THERE NEAR ESE ESOS ESA ESAS ESTE ESTOS ESTA ESTAS AQUEL AQUELLOS AQUELLA AQUELLA Putting a tilde over the first e in each word to turn it into a pronoun.


Reflexives Me Nos Te Se Se Reflexive pronouns work with reflexive verbs to show a person is performing an action to themselves. Placed immediately before conjugated verb and negative commands.

Preterite Vs imperfect:

Preterite Vs imperfect é amos aste -------------------- ó aron Aba Abamos Abas --------- aba aban The preterite is used when talking about A continuous action that happened in the past The imperfect is used when talking about A finished or “snapshot” like action that happened in the past - ar verbs i imos iste ------------------- io ieron - ir verbs Ía Íamos Ías ---------------- Ía Ían - ar verbs - ir verbs


POR To show motion or general location Object of a search Means in which something is done. Unit of measure Exchange or substitution Reason or motive for action PARA Destination Deadline for something Reciever of something Comparison with others or opinion In the employ of Purpose FOR

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