PLANT LAYOUT & MATERIAL HANDLING : PLANT LAYOUT & MATERIAL HANDLING Submitted by
K.N.Jakanathan Definition : 2 Definition Layout is a Fundamental of every organization and enterprise.
“Plant layout involves the development of physical relationships among building equipment and production operations which will enable the manufacturing process to be carried on efficiently”
Plant Layout - placement of departments,
placement of workgroups within departments,
placement of workstations,
placement of machines,
placement of stock-holding points
All within a facility Objectives : 3 Objectives Proper and efficient utilization of cubic (i.e. length, width and height) of available floor space.
To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another without any delay.
Provide enough production capacity.
Reduce material handling costs.
Reduce hazards to personnel.
Utilize labor efficiently.
Increase employee morale.
Eliminate conjugation and bottle neck at work.
Provide for volume and product flexibility.
Provide ease of supervision and control.
Provide for employee safety and health. [ Reduce accidents ]
Allow ease of maintenance.
Allow high machine or equipment utilization.
Reduce Capital Investment. Factors Influencing Layout : 4 Factors Influencing Layout Nature of product.
Production process. [Including Waiting Time]
Type of machinery.
Repairs and maintenance.
Material Handling Equipments.
Factory building. Slide 5: 5 Product Flow P&Q Analysis - Input data and Activities Activity relationships Chart relationship (flow, functional) Establish space requirements Space Availability Space relationships - Diagram Practical Limitations Material Handling Project Project Project
A B C Evaluate alternative arrangements Detail selected layout INSTALLATION Definition Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Selection Implementation Adjustment Systematic Layout Design
- Muther (1973) Maintenance
Mat. Handling Types of Layout : 6 Types of Layout Manufacturing units
► Product or line layout
► Process or functional layout
► Fixed position or location layout
► Combined layout
► Fixed Layout
►Cellular (or) Group Technology Layout Product oriented Plant Layout (Line Layout) : 7 Product oriented Plant Layout (Line Layout) Machinery and Materials are placed following the product path.
This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in a continuous or repetitive way.
Continuous flow: The correct operations flow is reached through the layout design and the equipment and machinery specifications.
Repetitive flow (assembly line): The correct operations flow will be based in a line balancing exercise, in order to avoid problems generated by bottle necks. : 8 The plant layout will be based in allocating a machine as close as possible to the next one in line, in the correct sequence to manufacture the product.
Allocating line may be of any form, like
straight line L shape
U shaped S shaped Cont., Factory Product layout : 9 Factory Product layout Product layout : 10 Product layout Product oriented plant layout
Economy material handling activities.
Mechanization of material handling equipments.
Work In Process almost eliminated.
Minimum manufacturing time.
Simplification of the production planning and control systems.
Greater incentive for group.
No flexibility in the production process
Low flexibility in the manufacturing times.
High capital investment.
Difficulty of supervising, since the person is expert in only one function.
Every workstation is critical to the process.- The lack of personnel or shut down of a machine stops the whole process.
Difficulty in expansion. Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout) : 11 Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout) This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in batches.
Personnel and equipment to perform the same function are allocated in the same area.
The different items have to move from one area to another one, according to the sequence of operations previously established.
The variety of products to produce will lead to a diversity of flows through the facility.
The variations in the production volumes from one period to the next one (short periods of time) may lead to modifications in the manufactured quantities as well as the types of products to be produced. Slide 12: 12 Factory Process layout Process Layout : 13 Process Layout Process oriented plant layout
Flexibility in the production process.
Better control of manufacturing cost.
Easy to handle the problems.
Better Supervising. [Experts will be there in each department]
Higher Individual incentive.
Manufacturing time increases.
Controlling will be costly and complex.
Material handling cost will be higher.
More workspace required.
Accumulation of work-in process. Fixed Layout : 14 Fixed Layout In Fixed product layout, the products generally circulate within the production facilities (machines, workers, etc.); in this particular type of layout, the product does not move, the different resources are moved to perform the operations on the product.
This type of layout is commonly found in industries that manufacture large size products, such as ships or aircrafts.
The equipment is brought to the object being processed, and the object does not move. Example: Air craft manufacturing.
Arranging materials and equipment concentrically around the production point in their order of use. Factory Fixed Layout : 15 Factory Fixed Layout Raw Material Machine & Equipment Labour Finished product
AIRCRAFT AIR CRAFT ASSEMBLY Fixed Layout : 16 Fixed Layout Advantages of stationery Layout:
Layout is fully flexible and is capable of absorbing any sort of change in product and process.
Lower labor cost [People are drawn from functional departments]
Saving in time
Less floor space because machines and equipment are in moving position.
Most suitable way of assembling large and heavy products.
Disadvantages Of Stationery Layout:
Higher capital investment
Unsuitability for manufacturing or assembling small products in large quantities. It is suitable only in case where the product is big or the assembling process is complex. Combined Layout or Mixed Layout : 17 Combined Layout or Mixed Layout Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production , combined layout is followed.
Generally, a combination of the product and process layout or other combination are found, in practice, e.g. for industries involving the fabrication of parts and assembly, fabrication tends to employ the process layout, while the assembly areas often employ the product layout. Factory Combined Layout : 18 Factory Combined Layout 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 Combined Milling Grinding 3 Painting Packing P-Q Analysis : 19 P-Q Analysis Product
Layouts Mixed Layouts Process Layouts Quantity Number of different products CELLULAR OR GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT : 20 CELLULAR OR GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT Work cells
Group of equipment and workers that perform a sequence of operations over multiple units of an item or family of items.
Looks for the advantages of product and process layouts:
Product oriented layout: Efficiency
Process oriented layout: Flexibility
Grouping outputs with the same characteristics to families, and assigning groups of machines and workers for the production of each family. CELLULAR OR GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT : 21 CELLULAR OR GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT In a cellular layout the design is not according to the functional characteristics of equipment, but rather by self-contained groups of equipment (called cells), needed for producing a particular set of goods or services.
Group technology, or cellular manufacturing, classifies parts into families so that efficient mass-production-type layouts can be designed for the families of goods or services. Slide 22: Cellular Layout Process (Functional) Layout Group (Cellular) Layout Similar resources placed together Resources to produce similar products placed together A cluster or cell CL or GT: BENEFITS : 23 CL or GT: BENEFITS Advantages
Lower work-in-process Inventories
Reduced material handling costs.
Shorter flow times in production.
Simplified production planning. (MEN, MATERIAL ETC.)
Overall performance increased by lowering production costs & improving on time delivery.
Reduced manufacturing flexibility & potentially increased machine downtime.
Duplicate pieces of machinery may be needed so as to avoid movement of parts between cells. Break Even Analysis : 24 Break Even Analysis Fixed layout Process Layout Cell or GT layout Product layout costs Volume Use fixed position Use process Use cell or GT Use product SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING : 25 SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) is an organized approach to facility Layout planning.
The heart of SLP is the Activity Relationship Chart and Diagrams that neatly summarize vast amounts of quantitative and Qualitative information. EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING: REASONS FOR CLOSENESS : 26 EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING: REASONS FOR CLOSENESS 26 Justification Code EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING: IMPORTANCE OF CLOSENESS : 27 EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING: IMPORTANCE OF CLOSENESS 27 Priority code EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING: RELATING REASONS AND IMPORTANCE : 28 EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING: RELATING REASONS AND IMPORTANCE 28 From 1. Credit department 2. Saree department 3. Wine department 4. Camera department 5. jewelry department -- U 1 I 1,6 A -- U 1 X 1 X To 2 3 4 5 Area
(sq. ft.) 100 400 300 100 100 Closeness rating Reason for rating Letter Number EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING:INITIAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM : 29 EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING:INITIAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 29 The number of lines here represent paths required to be taken in transactions between the departments. The more lines, the more the interaction between departments. Note here again, Depts. (1) and (4) are linked together, and Depts. (2) and (5) are linked together by multiple lines or required transactions. EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING:INITIAL AND FINAL LAYOUTS : 30 EXAMPLE OF SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING:INITIAL AND FINAL LAYOUTS 30 Note in the Final Layout that Depts. (1) and (5) are both not placed directly next to Dept. (2). Re-layout : 31 Re-layout A good plant layout involves not only the designing and installing of the layout for the
first time but also revision of existing layout.
The best layout becomes obsolete over a period of time. Reasons for Re-Layout : 32 Reasons for Re-Layout Product Design Change.
New Product Production.
Changes in volume of demand.
Facilities become obsolete.
Rearranging the department within the factory.
Consideration of safety.
Change in location of market.
Poor worker environment.
Improvement in layout technology. Plant location’s influence Plant layout : 33 Plant location’s influence Plant layout Location may affect make/buy decisions.
Location near the source.
Location near the transport facilities.
Easy Power supply.
Waste disposal facility. Material handling systems : 34 Material handling systems Slide 35: 35 As the science is getting developed new modern equipments are getting introduced in material handling area.
It is accelerating the activity of loading and unloading. These equipments are used for the movement of material over a short distance.
The bulk handling of the material takes place in shipyards, ports, airports etc. Role of material handling in logistics Slide 36: 36 Unloading the incoming material from transport vehicle.
Moving the unloaded material to assigned storage places in warehouses.
Lifting the material from the storage place during order picking.
Moving the material for inspection & packing.
Loading the boxes on transport vehicle. Material handling Operation steps Slide 37: 37 Designing the system for continuous flow of material.
No idle time.
Going in for the standard equipments – it reduces the cost.
If possible use gravitational force.
continuous material movement is most economical Material Handling Efficiency Slide 38: 38 Volume of operations.
Speed of handling.
Nature of product.
Size, shape, weight of the product.
Nature of equipment. Selecting Material handling Equipment Slide 39: 39 Commonly used equipments in industry –
Variable Path Forklift truck.
Auxiliary materials Rigging, Clamps Slide 40: 40 Wheeled trolley – two wheeled and four wheeled trolleys are used for transferring boxes from one place to another place within the organization. Trolleys have wide range of sizes and shapes. Organizations decide as per their requirement.
Overhead cranes - these are used for movement of heavy items but for a shorter distances. The movement is controlled by a person having controls in his hand. Many times it is a computerized activity. These cranes are installed on the fixed girders near the ceiling. Variable path Slide 41: 41 Wheeled Trolley Overhead Crane inside the factory Overhead cranes outside the factory Slide 42: 42 Forklift truck – this is highly useful in material handling activity. It got invented after II world war. The main advantages are,
Movement of larger loads over a longer distance.
Moving the load vertically also.
Movement of loads vertically and horizontally, exactly positioning for loading and unloading operations.
It can transfer the load in any direction. Fixed Path : 43 Fixed Path Conveyors – these are used where continuous flow of material is essential. It is used in mass production activity on production shop floor also. conveyors are widely used in automated warehouses in big retail shops. Slide 44: 44 Wheel conveyors – the small wheels made out of steel or plastic bearing. The load is kept on the bearings and either pushed or gravitational force is utilized for the forward movement of the material.
Roller conveyor – these are mainly used in docks for faster unloading of the goods. They are like wheel conveyors but powered rollers are used. Slide 45: 45 Belt conveyor – these are commonly used for material movement. It is used in mass production activity.
Chain conveyor – this is mainly used for movement of heavy material. It is used in mass production activity also. Pallets are kept on the chain and stoppers are provided for carrying out the production related work. Slide 46: 46 Wheel Conveyor Belt Conveyor Chain Conveyor Roller Conveyor Slide 47: 47 LIFT
These are used to lift the heavy materials vertically. It is useful to lift to upper floor. Slide 48: 48 Clamps
These are used for mainly clamping and picking the material in large volumes. It can have more number of trailers.
eg. Clip, metal mesh, Hooks, rings, oblong links.
These are used for picking and placing the materials. It is lengthy depends on use.
eg. Chains, ropes, wires. Auxiliary Slide 49: 49 Riggings,Clamps,Chains,oblong links Factors influencing material handling equipments : 50 Factors influencing material handling equipments Required path of travel (fixed or variable)
Nature of the material.
Physical characteristics of the building.
Space requirement of handling equipment.
Required handling capacity.
Cost consideration. Slide 51: 51 Relation between plant layout and Material Handling Close relation between plant layout and Material Handling.
Material Handling methods influence the layout and factory building.
Material Handling is to be considered as an integral part of plant layout to design low cost handling system.
Good Material Handling is resulted based on the arrangement of production equipment, location of departments, logical sequence of operations, location of stores, tools.
Material Handling system/equipment can be selected only after the appropriate floor plan.
Plant layout considers the points for material receiving and shipping of products
Careful arrangement of work centers and storage areas
Consider horizontal or vertical material transportation Slide 52: 52 Thank you …