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Premium member Presentation Transcript Specially Prepared By - : Chapter IV ( Food Security of India ) Specially Prepared By - TAANISHA Siddhant Jaiyesh Nandani Jaiswal Nakul Chaudhary Puneet Khurana Ashish Gosowami Rishabh Garg Gurpreet Singh Introduction : Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. According to the World Resources Institute, global per capita food production has been increasing substantially for the past several decades. In 2006, MSNBC reported that globally, the number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished - the world had more than one billion people who were overweight, and an estimated 800 million who were undernourished. According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China, the world's most populous country, is suffering from an obesity epidemic. In India, the second-most populous country in the world, 30 million people have been added to the ranks of the hungry since the mid-1990s and 46% of children are underweight. Introduction Preface : A text book of social science is a book for class IX and X. Economics is an integral component of general education up to secondary level. Economics is very crucial subject which enables the learner to know about the society of the world in which you are living . The present series has been written strictly in accordance with latest syllabus issued by N.C.E.R.T for the year 2010 and onwards. Main features of the series : Brief Subject matter. A judicious use of table , web chart and illustration to make the subject matter lucid and clear . The book presentation cantinas high quality photographs that were carefully selected to aid understanding , add realism and heighten the interest of the reader . Simple , lucid and student friendly language. Glossary of difficult term Recapitulation to have a quicker view. Strictly in accordance with the latest syllabus Preface Acknowledgment : The National Council of Education research and Training acknowledges the valuable contribution of all the involved in the development of economics Presentation. We also acknowledge the contribution made by Mrs. Aradhna Malik Mam , teacher of D.A.V Public School Rajendra Nager , Ghaziabad. We are thankful for all the my friends and Parent's for taking contribution to make this wonderful Presentation. Acknowledgment Food Security In India : Food security means availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all people at all times. Food Security In India What is Food Security? : What is Food Security? Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. According to the World Resources Institute, global per capita food production has been increasing substantially for the past several decades. In 2006, MSNBC reported that globally, the number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished - the world had more than one billion people who were overweight, and an estimated 800 million who were undernourished Slide 7: Food security has following dimensions:- (a) availability of food means food production within the country, food imports and the previous years stock stored in government granaries. (b) accessibility means food is within reach of every person. (c) affordability implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet one's dietary needs. Thus, food security is ensured in a country only if - enough food is available for all the persons. (2) all persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality. (3) there is no barrier on access to food. Why food Security? : Why food Security? The poorest section of the society might be food insecure most of the times while persons above the poverty line might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster/calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami, widespread failure of crops causing famine, etc. How is food security affected during a calamity? Due to a natural calamity, say drought, total production of foodgrains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected bares. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up. At the high prices, some people cannot afford to buy food. If such calamity happens in a very wide spread area or is stretched over a longer time period. Special Video on the half of Food Security F.A.O : Food and Agriculture Organization F.A.O Food and Agriculture Organization : Food and Agriculture Organization In the 1970s, food security was understood as the “availability at all times of adequate supply of basic foodstuffs” (UN, 1975). Amartya Sen added a new dimension to food security and emphasized the “access” to food through what he called ‘entitlements’ combination of what one can produce, exchange in the market along with state or other socially provided supplies. Accordingly, there has been a substantial shift in the understanding of food security. The 1995 World Food Summit declared, “Food security at the individual, household, regional, national and global levels exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 1996, p.3). A Famine is characterized by wide spread deaths due to starvation : A Famine is characterized by wide spread deaths due to starvation A Famine is characterised by wide spread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation. The most devastating famine that occurred in India was the FAMINE OF BENGAL in 1943. This famine killed thirty lakh people in the province of Bengal. Do you know who were affected the most by the famine? The agricultural laborers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual laborers were affected the most by dramatically increasing price of rice. They were the ones who died in this famine. Food Insecure : Approximately one out of six people are "food insecure", including 17 million children, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Food Insecure Who are food-insecure? : Who are food-insecure? Although a large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India, the worst affected groups are landless people with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitute including beggars. In the urban areas, the food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occupations and casual labour market. Story Of Ramu And Ahmad : Ramu works as a casual laborer in agriculture in Raipur village. Ahmad is a rickshaw puller in Bangalore. Story Of Ramu And Ahmad Slide 15: Ramu works as a casual labourer in agriculture in Raipur village. His eldest son Somu who is 10 years old also works as a pali to look after the cattle of the Sarpanch of the village Satpal Singh. Somu is employed for the whole year by the Sarpanch and is paid a sum of Rs 1,000 for this work. Ramu has three more sons and two daughters but they are too young to work on the field. His wife Sunhari is also (part time) working as house cleaner for the livestock, removing and managing cow dung. She gets ½ litre milk and some cooked food along with vegetables for her daily work. Besides she also works in the field along with her husband in the busy season and supplements his earnings. Agriculture being a seasonal activity employs Ramu only during times of sowing, transplanting and harvesting. He remains unemployed for about 4 months during the period of plant consolidation and maturing in a year. He looks for work in other activities. Some times he gets employment in brick laying or in construction activities in the village. By all his efforts, Ramu is able to earn enough either in cash or kind for him to buy essentials for two square meals for his family. However, during the days when he is unable to get some work, he and his family really face difficulties and sometimes his small kids have to sleep without food. Milk and vegetables are not a regular part of meals in the family. Ramu is food insecure during 4 months when he remains unemployed because of the seasonal nature of agriculture work. Ahmad is a rickshaw puller in Bangalore. He has shifted from Jhumri Taliah along with his 3 brothers, 2 sisters and old parents. He stays in a jhuggi. The survival of all members of his family depends on his daily earnings from pulling rickshaw. However, he does not have a secured employment and his earnings fluctuate every day. During some days he gets enough earning for him to save some amount after buying all his day-to-day necessities. On other days, he barely earns enough to buy his daily necessities. However, fortunately, Ahmad has a yellow card, which is PDS Card for below poverty line people. With this card, Ahmad gets sufficient quantity of wheat, rice, sugar and kerosene oil for his daily use. He gets these essentials at half of the market price. He purchases his monthly stock during a particular day when the ration shop is opened for below poverty people. In this way, Ahmad is able to eke out his survival with less than sufficient earnings for his big family where he is the only earning member. About Ramu About Ahmad Land degradation : Land degradation is a concept in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by one or more combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. Land degradation Land degradation : Land degradation Land degradation is a concept in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by one or more combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Natural hazardsare excluded as a cause, however human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as floods and bushfires. It is estimated that up to 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. Serious land degradation in Nauru after the depletion of the phosphate cover through mining Cause of land degradation : Cause of land degradation Land clearance, such as clearcutting and deforestation Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices Livestock including overgrazing Inappropriate Irrigation and over drafting Urban sprawl and commercial development Land pollution including industrial waste Vehicle off-roading Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals Overgrazing by livestock can lead to land degradation Buffer stock scheme : A buffer stock scheme is commonly implemented as intervention storage, the "ever-normal granary” Buffer stock scheme What is Buffer stock? : What is Buffer stock? A buffer stock scheme (commonly implemented as intervention storage, the "ever-normal granary") is an attempt to use commodity storage for the purposes of stabilising prices in an entire economy or, more commonly, an individual (commodity) market. Specifically, commodities are bought when there is a surplus in the economy, stored, and are then sold from these stores when there are economic shortages in the economy. Their usefulness is debated by economists. Operation of Buffer Stocks :- : Operation of Buffer Stocks :- As illustrated, the term "buffer stock scheme" can also refer to a scheme where the floor price and ceiling price are equal: in other words, an intervention in the market to ensure a fixed price. In order for such stores to be effective, the figure for "average supply" must be adjusted periodically to keep up with any broad trends toward increased yield. That is, it must truly be an average of probable yield outcomes at that given point in time. Most buffer stock schemes work along the same rough lines: first, two prices are determined, a floor and a ceiling (minimum and maximum price). When the price drops close to the floor price (after a new rich vein of silver is found, for example), the scheme operator (usually government) will start buying up the stock, ensuring that the price does not fall further. Single price scheme Two price scheme Public Distribution System : Dramatic changes in food consumption patterns have taken place in India in the post Green Revolution period. Public Distribution System Changes in Food Consumption Pattern : Changes in Food Consumption Pattern Dramatic changes in food consumption patterns have taken place in India in the post Green Revolution period. Between 1972-73 and 1993-94, the food basket has become much more diversified, with the share of cereals seeing a dramatic decline of ten percentage points in most regions. MSP and Food Procurement Policy : MSP and Food Procurement Policy The stock of food grains available with the government agencies as on 1 July 2002 was 63.01 million tonnes (mt) — 21.94 mt of rice and 41.07 mt of wheat. This was well above the prescribed buffer stock norms. Public Distribution System and Food Subsidy : Public Distribution System and Food Subsidy It is now well recognized that the availability of food grains is not a sufficient condition to ensure food security to the poor. It is also necessary that the poor have sufficient means to purchase food. The capacity of the poor to purchase food can be ensured in two ways – by raising the incomes or supplying food grains at subsidized prices. While employment generation programmers attempt the first solution, the PDS is the mechanism for the second option. Targeted Public Distribution System : Targeted Public Distribution System The PDS in its original form was widely criticized for its failure to serve the below poverty line (BPL) population, its urban bias, negligible coverage in the states with the highest concentration of the rural poor and lack of transparent and accountable arrangements for delivery. Realizing this, the government streamlined the system by issuing special cards to BPL families and selling food grains under PDS to them at specially subsidized prices with effect from June 1997. Economic approaches : There are many economic approaches advocated to improve food security in developing countries. Three typical approaches are listed below. The first is typical of what is advocated by most governments and international agencies. The other two are more common to non-governmental organizations (NGO’s). Economic approaches Westernized view : Westernized view Conventional thinking in westernized countries is that maximizing the farmers profit is the surest way of maximizing agricultural production; the higher a farmer’s profit, the greater the effort that will be forthcoming, and the greater the risk the farmer is willing to take. Place into the hands of farmers the largest number and highest quality tools possible (tools is used here to refer to improved production techniques, improved seeds, secure land tenure, accurate weather forecasts, etc.) However, it is left to the individual farmer to pick and choose which tools to use, and how to use them, as farmers have intimate knowledge of their own land and local conditions. Food justice : Food justice An alternative view takes a collective approach to achieve food security. It notes that globally enough food is produced to feed the entire world population at a level adequate to ensure that everyone can be free of hunger and fear of starvation. That no one should live without enough food because of economic constraints or social inequalities is the basic goal. This approach is often referred to as food justice and views food security as a basic human right. It advocates fairer distribution of food, particularly grain crops, as a means of ending chronic hunger and malnutrition. The core of the Food Justice movement is the belief that what is lacking is not food, but the political will to fairly distribute food regardless of the recipient’s ability to pay. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.