01 ADVENT OF EUROPEANS AND RULE OF GOVERNER GENERALS IN INDIA

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Advent of E uropeans in I ndia and rule of Governor Generals in India.

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ROUTE FOLLOWED BY VASCO DA GAMA

THE PORTUGUESE:

VASCO DA GAMA WAS SENT IN 1498 FROM LISBON TO FIND THE DIRECT SEA ROUTE FROM EUROPE INDIA. PORTUGUESE ESTABLISHED TRADING SETTLEMENTS AT CALICUT, COCHIN AND CANNANORE. COACHIN WAS THE EARLY CAPITAL OF THE PORTUGUESE IN INDIA. THE PORTUGUESE WERE ABLE TO ESTABLISH PORTS AT DAMAN, DIU, SALSETTE, BASSEIN, CHAUL, AND BOMBAY ON THE WESTERN COAST AND SAN THROME NEAR MADRAS AND HOOGHLY IN BENGAL. THE PORTUGUESE

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ARRIVAL OF DUTCH ST GEORGE FORT AT MADRAS DUTCH FACTORY AT HOOGLI

THE DUTCH IN INDIA:

IN 1602 THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY WAS FORMED AND THE DUTCH PARLIAMENT BY A CHARTER GAVE IT POWERS TO MAKE WARS. THE DUTCH GRADUALLY SET UP FACTORIES AT MASAULIPATNAM, PULICAT, SURAT BIMILIPATNAM, KARIKAL, CHINSURA, KASIMBAZAR, BORANAGORE, PATNA, BALASORE, NAGAPATNAM, AND COCHIN. IN THE 18 TH CENTURY DUTCH POWER IN INDIA DECLINED AND COLLAPSED WITH THE DEFEAT BY ENGLISH IN THE BATTLE OF BADARA IN 1759. THE DUTCH IN INDIA

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ARRIVAL OF ENGLISH BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY FLAG SIR JAMES LANCASTER LED THE FIRST VOYAGE OF EAST INDIA COMPANY IN 1601

THE ENGLISH IN INDIA :

ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY WAS FOUNDED IN 1600 AD BY THE MERCHANTS OF LONDON STARTED TRADE WITH INDIA. IT WAS CHARTERED IN 1600 BY QUEEN ELIZABETH. THE ENGLISH OPENED THEIR FIRST FCTORY IN MAASAULIPATNAM IN 1612. THE ISLAND OF BOMBAY WAS ACQUIRED BY THE EAST INDIA COMPANY FROM THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN 1668. THE ENGLISH IN INDIA

THE DANISH AND FRENCH IN INDIA.:

THE DANISH AND FRENCH IN INDIA. CHRISTAN IV CHARTERED THE DANISH EAST INDIA COMPANY LOUIS XIV CHARTERED THE FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY.

THE DANISH AND FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY :

DANISH EAST INDIA COMPANY WAS FOUNDED IN 16I6 A.D. THE DANISH ESTABLISHED SETTLEMENT AT BENGAL AND TAMIL NADU. THE FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY WAS FOUNDED IN 1664 A.D. THE FRENCH FACTORIES ESTABLISHED IN SURAT AND MASAULIPATNAM AND ALSO LAID THE FOUNDATION AT PONDICHERRY. BATTLE OF WANDIWASH (1760)- BRITISH DEFEATED FRENCH. THE DANISH AND FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY

CIVIL SERVICES:

CIVIL SERVICES LORD CORNWALLIS THE FATHER OF CIVIL SERVICESIN INDIA The term civil service was used by the East India Company to distinguish their civil employees from their military counterparts. Execution of law and collecting of revenue were the the main jobs of civil service. Governor General Lord Wellesley introduced the idea of suitable training for the civil servants in India. In 1800, he established the college of Fort William At Calcutta to provide training in science, literature and art.

THE ARMY AND THE POLICE :

THE ARMY WAS THE SECOND PILLAR OF THE BRITISH ADMINSTRATION IN INDIA. THE THIRD PILLAR OF POLICE WAS ESTABLISHED BY LORD CORNWALLIS. HE RECRUITED ZAMINDARS AND MAINTAINED A POLICE FORCE; HE ESTABLISHED A SYSTEM OF CIRCLES OR THANAS EACH HEADED BY A DAROGA. IN BIG CITIES, THE OLD SYSTEM OF KOTWAL WAS CONTINUED BUT A DAROGA WAS APPOINTED TO EACH WARD. THE ARMY AND THE POLICE

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The judicial system Given a start by Warren Hastings the British judicial system was based on hierarchy of civil and criminal courts established by Cornwallis through a code known as Cornwallis code of may 1793. In 1883, the British government appointed a law commission headed by Lord Macaulay. Lord Macaulay

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Zamindari system

Permanent settlement or the Zamindari system:

The first historical and most important settlement was the permanent settlement also known as Zamindari bandobast . The Zamindars were made the owners of the whole land in their Zamindaris as long as they payed their dues to the states and worked as agents of governments in collecting the land revenue. A Zamindar was required to pay about 89% of his produce and keep 11% with himself for his service to the state. The land revenue was fixed on a permanent basis for 10 years. Zamindars were given hereditary rights, and isued written agreements. A Zamindar could sell, mortgage or transfer his land. Permanent settlement or the Zamindari system

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Ryotwari settlement. Sir Thomas Munro Governor of Madras 1820-1827. The Ryotwari , a settlement directly with the Ryots (cultivators) and the government. The revenue was fixed for a period for 2 to 30 years on the basis of nature of crop and quality of soil. The position of Ryots became more secure but the rigid system of revenue collection often forced them into the clutches of money_lenders or landlords.

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First Governor of Bengal – Robert Clive First Governor General of Bengal – Warren Hastings First Governor General of India – William Bentick First Viceroy of India – lord Canning First viceroy of independent India–Lord Mountbatten First and last Indian Viceroy of independent India – C Rajagopalachari Governor-Generals and Viceroys

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Robert Clive(1757-60), (65-67) Battle of Plassey 1757 Introduced dual system in Bengal in 1965

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Warren Hastings(1772-85) Imposed Regulating Act of 1773. Imposed Pitt’s India Act of 1784.

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Lord Cornwallis(1786-93) Third Anglo Mysore war in 1790-92 Treaty of Srirangpatnam of 1792.

Sir John Shore(1793-98):

Sir John Shore(1793-98)

Lord Wellesley(1798-1805):

Lord Wellesley(1798-1805)

Sir George Barlow(1805-1807):

Sir George Barlow(1805-1807)

Lord Minto I(1807-13):

Lord Minto I(1807-13) Treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809. Charter Act of 1813 was passed He was a noted diplomat, politician and colonial administrator. He was raised to Peerage of Great Britain in 1797.

Lord Hastings(1813-23):

Lord Hastings(1813-23) Third Maratha War in 1817-1819 and dissolution of Maratha confederation; creation of Bombay presidency in 1818 Strife with Pindaris in 1817-1818 He oversaw victory in Gurkha War (1814-1816) He also purchased the island of Singapore in 1819

Lord Amherst(1823-28):

Lord Amherst(1823-28)

Lord William Bentinck(1828 -35):

Lord William Bentinck(1828 -35) Abolition of Sati and other cruel rites in 1829. Educational reforms and introduction of English as the official language. Treaty of perpetual friendship with Ranjeet Singh.

Lord Metcalfe(1835-36):

Lord Metcalfe(1835-36)

Lord Auckland(1836-1842):

Lord Auckland(1836-1842)

Lord Ellenborough(1842-44):

Lord Ellenborough (1842-44)

Lord Hardinge I(1844-1848) :

Lord Hardinge I(1844-1848)

Lord Dalhousie(1848-56):

Lord Dalhousie(1848-56) Started the Public Works Department Annexation of Lower Burma or Pegu in 1852 Introduction of the Doctrine of Lapse Annexation of Satara in 1848, Jaitpur and Sambhalpur in 1849, Udaipur in 1852, Jhansi in 1853, Nagpur in 1854 and Awadh in 1856. Laid the first Railway line connecting Bombay to Thane in 1853. Ganges canal declared open in 1845 “Educational Despatch ” of Anglo Vernacular Schools and government colleges 400 miles of Telegraph lines laid to connect Calcutta with Bombay, madras and Peshawar. G.T. road was started Harbours of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were developed. Started College in Roorkee .

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Lord Canning(1856-57) Establishment of three universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Felt that “the only way to consolidate British colonialism in India was to break up the unity shown by the Indians in the mutiny by creating internal hatred.” He was derisively called "Clemency" on account of lenient treatment meted out to rebellious soldiers of 1857 mutiny. He was the first Viceroy of India (1858 Act)

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BY ARJUN AND SUKHJINDER THANK YOU

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