CROSS-CULTURE COMMUNICATION : CROSS-CULTURE COMMUNICATION “The reasonable person adapts himself to the world, while the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself” What is a culture? : What is a culture? Culture is the "lens" through which you view the world.
It is central to what you see,
How you make sense of what you see,
How you express yourself. "Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs."
– Tom Wolfe Slide 3: What is different? 1. Communication Styles 2. Attitudes toward conflicts 3. Decision making style 4. Approaches to knowing What is hidden below the surface? 1. Beliefs 2. Values 3. Expectations 4. Attitudes Four Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Difference Slide 4: COMMUNICATON Communication is the sending of a message from a source to a receiver with the least possible loss of meaning. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The speaker sends a message that is in
some kind of code. The listener
decodes the message and responds,
thereby giving the speaker feedback. What is effective communication? : What is effective communication? The Art, Science and Practice. Effective Speaking Effective listening Understanding people’s perception Slide 6: CODES USED IN COMMUNICATION Verbal Communication
Touch Slide 7: Cross Culture Communication Intercultural Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background could lead them to interpret verbal and non-verbal signs differently. Slide 8: Why Cross Culture
Communication is important ? Business Opportunities
Improves the contribution of employees in a diverse workforce
Sharing of views and ideas
An understanding of diverse market Globalization: Cross border movement of people, goods and data brings more and more cultures into contact with one another and increases the potential of cross culture communication. Verbal Communication Differences : Verbal Communication Differences 1.Words
2.Voice Slide 10: High Context and Low Context Cultures High Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily on non-verbal and subtle situational cues in communication.
Low Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication. Non-Verbal Communication Differences : Non-Verbal Communication Differences Case In Point : Eye Contact : Case In Point : Eye Contact In some cultures, looking people in the eye is assumed to indicate honesty and straightforwardness; in others it is seen as challenging and rude. Slide 13: In USA, the cheapest, most effective way to connect with people is to look them into the eye. Slide 14: "Most people in Arab culture share a great deal of eye contact and may regard too little as disrespectful. Slide 15: In English culture, a certain amount of eye contact is required, but too much makes many people uncomfortable. Slide 16: In South Asian and many other cultures direct eye contact is generally regarded as aggressive and rude. Case in Point : Gesture : Case in Point : Gesture Slide 18: How can a Gestures distort the message……………….. A motion of the hands, head or body to emphasize an idea or emotion. Perfect! OK! Zero! Worthless! Rubbish! Gestures Slide 19: USA=OK JAPAN=MONEY RUSSIA=ZERO BRAZIL=INSULT Slide 20: How can the same Gestures be treated differently in different cultures Slide 21: Gestures – Around the World Western - “Do you have a telephone ?”
Brazil - “Cuckold (Your wife is cheating to you)”
USA - “Sign for the Texas Long Horns” Slide 22: Blocks to Cultural Communication
1. Ethnocentrism : Inability to accept another culture's world view;
"my way is the best."
2. Discrimination : Differential treatment of an individual due to
minority status; actual and perceived; e.g., "we just aren't equipped to
serve people like that."
3. Stereotyping : Generalizing about a person while ignoring presence
of individual difference; e.g., "she's like that because she's Asian – all
Asians are nonverbal." Slide 23: 4.Cultural Blindness: Differences are ignored and one proceeds as
though differences did not exist; e.g., "there's no need to worry about a
5.Cultural Imposition: Belief that everyone should conform to the
majority; e.g., "we know what's best for you, if you don't like it you can go elsewhere."
6.Tone Difference : Formal tone change becomes embarrassing and off-putting in some cultures. DEVELOPING CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS : DEVELOPING CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS "Tact is the ability to describe others as they see themselves.“
– Abraham Lincoln Skills To Overcome Differences : Skills To Overcome Differences "To handle yourself, use your head; to handle others, use your heart."
– Donald Laird Skills To Overcome Differences : Skills To Overcome Differences Respecting Differences and Working Together Skills To Overcome Differences : Skills To Overcome Differences Building Trust Across Cultural Boundaries Skills To Overcome Differences : Skills To Overcome Differences Understanding Body Language United States of America
Americans tend to refrain from greetings that involve hugging and other close physical contact.
When sitting, U.S. citizens often look very relaxed. They may sometimes sit with the ankle of one leg on their knee. Arab Countries
The left hand is considered unclean in the Arab countries.
When sitting, keep both feet on the ground.
The "thumbs up" sign is offensive throughout the Arab world.
Bows are used for expressing appreciation, making apologies and requests, as well as for greetings and farewells.
When the Japanese want to give the impression that they are in deep thought, they will sometimes fold their arms. Skills To Overcome Differences : Skills To Overcome Differences Connecting with people Slide 30: Things To Remember While Interacting And Connecting With People Slide 31: Business Attire Business Attire Slide 32: Selecting and Presenting Business Gifts Slide 33: Unwrapping gifts
Saudi Arabia - Gifts are opened in private.
USA - Gifts are opened in public
Indonesia - Gifts, such as tokens memento of your country or your company logo
Turkey - Wine or liquor if you are sure your hosts drink alcohol, Candy, pastries & Roses, Glassware, such as a vase, goblet, or decanter make prized gifts
Gifts to avoid
UAE - Alcohol / perfumes containing alcohol and pork and pigskin products to be avoided
China - Do not give anything in sets of four or gifts that carry the association of death, funerals such as clocks, cut flowers, white
objects. Selecting And Presenting Gifts Slide 34: How do you do it?
The handshake should be firm.
While shaking hands establish eye contact and always smile
The person who initiates the handshake is the one who closes it. Handshake Slide 35: Improving Cross Culture Communication Slide 36: Welcome Topics & Topics to Avoid during Conversation Slide 37: Welcome Topics during a Conversation Welcome Topics of Conversation:
Indonesia: Family, travel/tourism, sports, praising the local cuisine, future plans and success of the group or organization
Germany: Sports--particularly soccer, tennis, current events, politics, among those who imbibe, beer is often a good topic of conversation Slide 38: Topics to Avoid:
Indonesia: Politics, corruption, criticism of Indonesian ways, commenting on Indonesian customs that you find peculiar, religion
Saudi Arabia: Middle Eastern politics and International oil politics, Israel, criticizing or questioning Islamic beliefs, women/ inquiries or complimentary remarks about the female family members of your Saudi associates
South Korea: Korean politics/local politics, The Korean War, Socialism and Communism, Japan and your contacts in Japan, your host's wife, Personal family matters
Germany: World War II, personal questions, Topics to avoid during a Conversation Slide 39: TEN Pre-cautions in Cultural Communication Slow Down
Avoid Negative Questions
Write it down
Watch the humour
Maintain Etiquette Slide 40: Business in Today’s Scenario is not a “National Match” but is a “Olympics”, where there are International Players. Only that Individual / Company can survive which has done its homework well & developed its uniqueness. Slide 41: Faster Rapport Building Faster Rapport Building Slide 42: Success Rate will Increase Success Rate will Increase