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Classification Domestic waste Factory waste Waste from oil factory E-waste Construction waste Agricultural waste Food processing waste Bio-medical waste Nuclear waste Slide 3: Solid Waste Classification of Wastes : Classification of Wastes Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc. E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants Solid Waste in India : Solid Waste in India 7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year Rs 1600 crore for treatment & disposal of these wastes In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tonnes of high volume low hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas. Source: Estimate of Ministry of Environment & Forest Growth of Solid Waste In India : Growth of Solid Waste In India Waste is growing by leaps & bounds In 1981-91, population of Mumbai increased from 8.2 million to 12.3 million During the same period, municipal solid waste has grown from 3200 tonnes to 5355 tonne, an increase of 67% Waste collection is very low for all Indian cities City like Bangalore produces 2000 tonnes of waste per annum, the ever increasing waste has put pressure on hygienic condition of the city Source: The Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi Waste Collection in India : Waste Collection in India Primarily by the city municipality -No gradation of waste product eg bio-degradable, glasses, polybags, paper shreds etc -Dumps these wastes to the city outskirts Local raddiwala / kabadiwala (Rag pickers) -Collecting small iron pieces by magnets -Collecting glass bottles -Collecting paper for recycling MCD- Sophisticated DWM (Delhi Waste Management) vehicle How solid waste affected us in recent years? : How solid waste affected us in recent years? Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of plastic bags Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida, caused due to imported scrap from Iran Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated foods Stray animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic bags, which blocks the food movement in their stomach Hazardous / Toxic Waste & Dumping Site : Hazardous / Toxic Waste & Dumping Site Industrialised countries have waste management problems Developed countries have strict environment regulation norms Most attractive option for them- to dump into developing countries Philadelphia’s Municipal Waste : Philadelphia’s Municipal Waste 16 years journey for the cargo ship to eleven countries and four continents 25,000 tonnes of flyash came back to Philadelphia’s garbage dump Several government refused cargo ships In 2002, Cargo ship returned back to US Major Polluting Industries in India : Major Polluting Industries in India Around 2500 tanneries discharge 24 million cu m of waste water containing high level of dissolved solids and 4,00,000 tonnes of hazardous solid waste 300 distilleries discharge 26 million kilo-litres of spend wash per year containing several pollutants Thermal power plants discharge huge waste materials Slide 12: Collection & Recycling of Waste Materials Managing Waste : Managing Waste Recycling: Processing of a waste item into usable forms. Benefits of recycling: -Reduce environmental degradation -Making money out of waste -Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufacture Saving through recycling: -When Al is resmelted- considerable saving in cost -Making paper from waste saves 50% energy -Every tonne of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 litres of oil Recycling not a solution to all problems! : Recycling not a solution to all problems! Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material For many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe In some cases, cost of recycling is too high. Solution: More Profit With Zero Waste : Solution: More Profit With Zero Waste Exchanging output that are considered waste Waste of one could be input or raw material for others Evolving a closed system- matter & energy circulate within System was not designed to be so The system of exchange evolved in 10 years Problems in Dealing With Solid Waste : Problems in Dealing With Solid Waste Education & voluntary compliance Collection of waste Technological interventions Institutions & regulatory framework Absence of mandatory standards for waste reduction Market action for waste reduction Source: The Energy & Resources Institute TERI Projections on Waste Generation In India : TERI Projections on Waste Generation In India Slide 18: French aircraft carrier Clemenceau http://www.greenpeace.org/international/news/ghost-ship-121205 French aircraft carrier Clemenceau : French aircraft carrier Clemenceau December 12, 2005, Clemenceau, Ghost ship nobody wants 27,000-ton warship full of asbestos, PCBs, lead, mercury, and other toxic chemicals Indian scrapyard of Alang (Bhavnagar district, Gujarat) , a place where environmental regulations are lax and workers' rights are practically nonexistant In most shipbreaking nations proper waste management is absent. There are no rules and regulations. And where rules exist, they're unlikely to be enforced. Basel Convention (1989) is an international treaty which prohibits the export of hazardous waste from rich to poor countries Greenpeace raised awareness campaigned against the ship in India as well as in France French President Chirac has announced a dramatic recall of the asbestos-laden warship Clemenceau References : References Environmental Studies www.greenpeace.org www.teri.res.in You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.