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Transportation By Elan, Laura, and Max

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Industry Overview: Energy Use Fuels and Fuel Economy Standards Transportation Policy Modes of Transportation- long distance and mass transit New Technology: Hydrogen Fuel Cells Electric Vehicles Hybrid Cars Transportation Suggestions

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Energy Use For Transportation While transportation does use 27% of our energy resources, there are other areas where we can reduce energy use. Compared to only 1 car for every 2 people in Canada.

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Industry Overview Feet Bicycles Rollerblades Skateboards Skis (in snowy places)

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Energy Use By Type of Vehicle Real Industry Overview

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Transportation in the United States Canals for Ships Railroad Tracks for Trains Roads and Highways for Animals, Automobiles and Buses -Private Transit -Public Transit Runways for Airplanes

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Fuels Used For Transportation Since the most commonly used fuel for transportation is petroleum, we need to find and alternative before “The Party’s Over” Richard Heinberg

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FUEL ECONOMY SOLUTIONS -Raise Fuel Economy Standard to be on par with other countries via CAFE Standards -Offer incentives for buying cars with good fuel economy -increase taxes on auto makers who produce cars with low fuel economy -raise gas prices -enact a credit system as discussed in “Ending The Energy Stalemate” -offer more public transit options -create more hybrid cars

Transportation Policy : 

Transportation Policy Right now, the government funds 80% to 90% of highway construction costs, and only 50% of mass transit costs after a long process. To promote public transportation, this must change.

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Long Distance Travel (Cars) 1900: essentially no automobiles 1920s: due to paved roads and mass production of automobiles there was more travel by automobiles than be railroads

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Long Distance (Locomotives) -1920s saw a switch from steam powered locomotives to diesel and electric -The hybrid set-up eliminates the need for a mechanical transmission -A fully loaded rail car is 15 times more energy efficient than the average automobile -Based on the amount of energy required to move one passenger one km by train in the U.S. -a commercial airplane uses three times the amount of energy -an automobile with a single occupant uses six time that amount of energy

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Distant Future of Locomotives -Magnetic levitation train (maglev) -Very expensive to build and operate -Shanghai maglev at 20,000 passengers a day, $6/passenger will take around 30 years to pay off just the capital costs, not including track maintenance, salaries, and electricity -Still being studied to be built between large cities in California and Las Vegas -THEORY: create in vacuum-filled tunnels -Tunnels deep enough to pass under oceans train could top at around 5000 mph, making the trip between London and New York only 54 minutes)

Shanghai Maglev : 

Shanghai Maglev

Long Distance Travel (Airplanes) : 

-1950s: airplane travel for commercial purposes began -1970s: fares become cheaper and more affordable for the average traveler -Consumed more fuel per passenger-mile -Consumption per passenger-hour was many times higher than the automobile -Today, the typical airline passenger experiences a mpg roughly equivalent to that of an automobile driver -Causes noise pollution -Kerosene -Only transportation form not significantly regulated to reduce environmental impact -Currently only small realistic improvements can be made—each saving 1-3% fuel Long Distance Travel (Airplanes)

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Mass Transit -98% of urban area travel is by car -Mass-transit users typically spend $200-$2000 per year for travel, considerably less than car owners -The problem is construction of mass-transit systems requires a large energy investment

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Light rail transit (LRT) -Less-massive than other rail systems (street cars and trolleys) -Trolley is an electric streetcar that draws power from a live suspended wire -1998: state legislature in Minnesota approved $40 million towards a light rail project in Minneapolis

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Trolleybus -Powered by two overhead electric wires, from which it draws electricity using 2 trolley poles -Rubber tires have better roadway adhesion than streetcar steel wheels on steel rails -Regenerative breaking -Dilemma: difficult to compete with efficiencies of light rail but are very flexible in uses and have lower start up costs than conventional buses

Buses : 

Buses -Buses are beginning to run more and more on biodiesel and natural gas -Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver has developed and demonstrated the world’s first hydrogen fuel cell-powered city transit bus -Compressed natural gas vs. hybrid buses vs. diesel buses

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-Hydrogen is most abundant element in universe, easy to produce -Converts hydrogen and oxygen to water, heat, and electricity -used in “stacks” of 100+ Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydrogen Fuel Cells : 

Hydrogen Fuel Cells -Less pollutants and emissions because not a combustion reaction -Safety is uncertain- H2 is highly flammable, hazardous to ingest -Challenges include: cost; durability; size; air, thermal, and water management; heat recovery systems

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How It Works H2 fed thru anode and looses electrons O2 fed thru cathode, gains electron Hydrogen atoms split into protons and electrons, protons pass thru membrane to cathode Electron circulates from anode to cathode via current in flow plates P+ and e- reunited w/ O2 to create water in cathode, heat, and electrical current

Electric Vehicles : 

Electric Vehicles Toyota Rav-4 EV: over 300 operating in US today, collectively traveled over 1 million miles, reach 80 mph -Energy from direct connection to land-based generation plant -Chemical energy stored on board -Propelled by electric motor -Generator converts fuel and repowers battery

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-Saves money (gas) -Uses recyclable materials -90% conversion efficiency -Better control -Regenerative breaking -90% cleaner than gas-powered cars -Eliminate smog checks, tune ups, oil changes, gears, torque converters, differentials The GM EV1 Pros

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Cons -Fragile -Sensitive to contamination -Require external reactants such as hydrogen -Batteries require unstable chemicals and must be recycled The Nissan Altra

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Hybrid Cars -Mix between gasoline-powered car and an electric car -Rising fuel costs and better designs are making hybrids more and more competitive -Incremental cost more than standard equivalent is about $2,000-$3,000 -U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides a tax credit of up to $3,400 for owners of hybrid cars to help make hybrids more competitive

Hybrids : 

Hybrids Hybrids have smaller, more efficient gas engines Gas engines on conventional cars are sized for peak power requirement which is used by drivers less than 1% of the time Regenerative breaking—hybrid cars capture some of the energy usually lost through heat when a car breaks and stores it in the battery

Hybrids : 

Hybrids The gasoline engine can be turned off at stop signs, doesn’t need to be on at all times. Key components of the car like the air-conditioning can run off the battery The best hybrids have made fuel economy gains of 30-80% while maintaining, and sometimes, increasing horsepower with no decline in weight or size

Models of Hybrids : 

Models of Hybrids 2 most widely owned hybrids in the U.S. are the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius. Toyota Motor Corp. wants hybrids to make up 25 percent of its U.S. sales by early in the next decade.

Transportation Suggestions : 

Transportation Suggestions Promote use of hybrids Research safer and more efficient ways to implement new technology in passenger vehicles Encourage use of mass transit in urban areas through government funding and community planning Discourage flights for travel <200 miles Close the 30-40% gap between government subsidies of highways and mass transit Stronger CAFE standards

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