Ion Exchange Chromatography, PPT

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ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY by Mr. Shaise Jacob Faculty, Nirmala College of Pharmacy Muvattupuzha Kerala, India Email.


ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY » Mixture of similar charged ions separated by using ion exchange resin » Reversible exchange of similar charged ions ◊ Cations or Anions can be separated PRINCIPLE Reversible exchange of ions b/w ions present in the solu. & ion exchange resin

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CLASSIFICATION OF RESINS According to the chemical nature they classified as- 1. Strong cation exchange resin 2. Weak cation exchange resin 3. Strong anion exchange resin 4. Weak anion exchange resin

According to the Source they can -:

According to the Source they can - Natural : Cation - Zeolytes, Clay Anion - Dolomite Synthetic : Inorganic & Organic resins ◘ Organic resins are polymeric resin matrix The resin composed of – Polystyrene (sites for exchangeable functional groups), Divinyl benzene (Cross linking agent)-offers stability

Ion exchange resin should have following requirements:

Ion exchange resin should have following requirements »It must be chemically stable »It should be insoluble in common solvents » It should have a sufficient degree of cross linking »The swollen resin must be denser than water »It must contain sufficient no. of ion exchange groups

Structural types of ion exchange resins:

Structural types of ion exchange resins a) Pellicular type with ion exchange resins: » 30 - 40 µ with 1-2µ film thickness »Very low exchange capacity b) Porous resin coated with exchanger beads » Size 5 - 10 µ » Porous & highly efficient c) Macroreticular resin bead » Not highly efficient & low exchange capacity

d) Surface sulfonated & bonded electrostatically with anion exchanger:

d) Surface sulfonated & bonded electrostatically with anion exchanger » less efficient & low exchange capacity Physical properties of ion exchange resins Cross linking: It affects swelling & strength & solubility Swelling: When resin swells, polymer chain spreads apart Polar solvents → swelling Non-polar solvents → contraction Swelling also affected electrolyte conc.

Particle size & Porosity:

Particle size & Porosity ↑surface area & ↓particle size will ↑rate of ion exchange Particle size 50-100 mesh / 100-200 mesh Regeneration Cation exchange resin are regenerated by treatment with acid, then washing with water Anion exchange resin are regenerated by treatment with NaOH, then washing with water until neutral


PRACTICAL REQUIREMENTS Column » glass, stainless steel or polymers Length: diameter ratio 20:100 to 100:1 Packing the column » Wet packing method 3. Application of the sample After packing, sample is added to the top of the column, use syringe or pipette

4.Mobile phase:

4.Mobile phase Acids, alkalis, buffers… 5.Elution Components of mixture separate & move down the column at different rates depending upon the affinity of the ion for ion exchanger. » the eluates are collected at different stages 6. Analysis of the eluate > spectrophotometric, flame photometry polarographic, conductometric…

Factors affecting ion exchange separations:

Factors affecting ion exchange separations Nature & properties of ion exchange resins Cross linking & swelling is important If more cross linking , they are more rigid, but swelling is less swells less → separation of ions of different sizes is difficult Nature of exchanging ions 1. valency of ions

2.Size of ions:

2.Size of ions 3.Polarizability 4.Concentration of solution 5. Concentration & charge of ions APPLICATIONS ◘ softening of water ◘ demineralisation of water ◘ purification of solutions free from ionic impurities ◘ separation of inorganic ions ◘ separation of sugars, amino acids ◘ ion exchange column in HPLC