PollutionPPT by Dr.K.M.Ishwar

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Pollution :

Pollution Types ,Causes ,control & effects

SLOGANS :

SLOGANS Plant a tree and get air for free. Feel free to plant a tree. A tree that stay, keep flood away. Take care of the trees, they will take care of you.

Pollution:

Pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy , such as noise, heat or light . Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution . The Blacksmith Institute issues an annual list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan , China , India , Peru , Russia , Ukraine and Zambia .

Pollution :

Pollution Pollution - Environmental pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life . Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods.

Pollution :

Pollution It is undesirable change in physical ,chemical or biological characteristics of air, water and soil that harmfully affect human, animals, plants, industrial progress, economical condition and cultural assets .

Ancient cultures :

Ancient cultures Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, " soot found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires .“ It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution

sources:

sources P ollution comes from both natural and man made sources. Though globally man made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation .

Sources of Pollution:

Sources of Pollution POLLUTION Others Transport Biomedical Industry Domestic & Municipal Mining Agriculture Natural

Sources :

Sources

Pollutants :

Pollutants Depending up on the nature (physical chemicalbiological,etc .) ,dimension ,pollutant may be of deferent types -:

PowerPoint Presentation:

Liquid-acids ,bases, etc Gaseous- Nox , COx,Sox,etc Solid-dust ,HC , etc Types of Pollutants

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of Pollutants Secondary Primary

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chemical Biological Physical Types of Pollutants

Modern awareness :

Modern awareness Pollution became a popular issue after World War II, due to radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people.This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956 . Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act , the Clean Air Act , the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act .

The major forms of pollution are listed below:

The major forms of pollution are listed below Air pollution :- the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight.

The major forms of pollution are listed below:

The major forms of pollution are listed below Light pollution :- includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Littering :- the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties. Noise pollution :- which encompasses roadway noise , aircraft noise , industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar .

The major forms of pollution are listed below:

The major forms of pollution are listed below soil pollution occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons , heavy metals , pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons . Radioactive , resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics , such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment

The major forms of pollution are listed below:

The major forms of pollution are listed below Thermal pollution , is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. Visual pollution , which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines , motorway billboards , scarred landforms (as from strip mining ), open storage of trash, municipal solid waste or space debris .

The major forms of pollution are listed below:

The major forms of pollution are listed below Water pollution , by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters ; discharges of untreated domestic sewage , and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine , from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides ); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater ; eutrophication and littering.

overview:

overview China , United States , Russia , Mexico , and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants , coal-fired power plants , oil refineries , petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc .), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary .

overview:

overview About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year. The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population , but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO 2 , and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste . In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO 2 ,while still far behind based on per capita pollution - ranked 78th among the world's nations.

Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution. :

Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution. Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease , cardiovascular disease , throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion . Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries . An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. In India , air pollution is believed to cause 527,700 fatalities a year . Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50,000.

Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution. :

Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution. Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes . Noise pollution induces hearing loss , high blood pressure , stress , and sleep disturbance Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution . Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects

Health effect :

Health effect The major burden of these hazards is borne by the lungs. Bronchial Asthma and other allergies; chronic obstructive lung disease, respiratory infections including tuberculosis and occupational lung diseases are some of the common problems with a strong environmental risk which, account for a large disease burden all over the world, including in India. Extensive studies to gauge the effects of environmental factors on the human health. needed. According to New England Journal of Medicine, 2007, even a short exposure to traffic fumes can increase your chances of Heart Disease , including heart attack.

Health effect :

Health effect People who exercise in areas where there is heavy traffic may be especially at risk, researchers say. Doctors at AIIMS, Delhi said on October 28, 2010 the incidence of rising strokes among the youngsters. “Lifestyle, environmental changes, growing pollution are the major causes for the increase,” said Dr Kameshwar Prasad, professor, neurology, AIIMS. This gaseous air-pollutant along with other noxious gases emitted from the burning of fire-crackers on the eve of Diwali or Holi Festival aggravates the risk of triggering an attack in 30 mn asthmatics in India and also has the potential to cause new cases of asthma.

Health effects:

Health effects

Environmental effect :

Environmental effect Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals ) may pass through trophic levels , becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification , the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO 2 becomes dissolved. The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. omnipresent species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity . Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules ( allelopathy ) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness .

Environmental effect :

Environmental effect Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web . Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil

Most polluted city:

Most polluted city Kanpur, India World ranking: 10 Population: 4,572,951 Kanpur is one of the largest cities in India and one of the most polluted in the world. Worst still, the levels of air pollution in the city, which is the 10th most polluted city in the world. According to the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forest, while vehicles, road dust and domestic cooking contribute to the city's high pollution level, it is the industrial sector that is the main cause

The most polluted cities in India:

The most polluted cities in India As many as 51 Indian cities have extremely high air pollution, Patna, Lucknow, Raipur, Faridabad and Ahmadabad topping the list. An environment and forest ministry report, released on September 14, 2007 has identified 51 cities that do not meet the prescribed Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM) levels, specified under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

Most polluted city:

Most polluted city Ludhiana, India World ranking: Four Population: 3,487,882 Ludhiana is a highly industrial city with manufacturing plants that produce everything from textiles to auto parts. Unfortunately, this industry, paired with vehicular pollution, has made Ludhiana one of the most polluted cities in the world. It currently has the fourth most polluted air in the world. There are about 200 premature deaths each year in the city due to air pollution.

Environmental effect :

Environmental effect

Ludhiana & kanpur:

Ludhiana & kanpur

Mongolia ,Quetta- Pakistan ,Kermanshah-Iran, Peshawar-Pakistan:

Mongolia ,Quetta- Pakistan ,Kermanshah-Iran, Peshawar-Pakistan

Gaborone, Botswana, . Yasuj, Iran:

Gaborone, Botswana, . Yasuj , Iran

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

TYPES OF POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, physical, or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in it.

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

TYPES OF POLLUTION THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal pollution is the discharge of waste heat via energy dissipation into cooling water and subsequently into nearby waterways . L AND POLLUTION Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of the soil by poor agricultural practices, mineral exploitation, industrial waste dumping, and indiscriminate disposal of urban wastes.

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

TYPES OF POLLUTION Solid Waste In the United States in 1988 municipal wastes alone--that is, the solid wastes sent by households, business, and municipalities to local landfills and other waste-disposal facilities--equaled 163 million metric tons (1980 million U.S. tons), or 18 k (40lb) per person, according to figures released by the Environmental Protection Agency. Additional solid wastes accumulate from mining, industrial production, and agriculture.

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

TYPES OF POLLUTION PESTICIDE POLLUTION Pesticides are organic and inorganic chemicals originally invented and first used effectively to better the human environment by controlling undesirable life forms such as bacteria, pests, and foraging insects. Their effectiveness, however, has caused considerable pollution . RADIATION POLLUTION Radiation pollution is any form of ionizing or nonionizing radiation that results from human activities. The most well-known radiation results from the detonation of nuclear devices and the controlled release of energy by nuclear-power generating plants (see nuclear energy).

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

TYPES OF POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution has a relatively recent origin. It is a composite of sounds generated by human activities ranging from blasting stereo systems to the roar of supersonic transport jets. Although the frequency (pitch) of noise may be of major importance, most noise sources are measured in terms of intensity, or strength of the sound field. The standard

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

TYPES OF POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials. Degradation of air quality and natural atmospheric conditions constitute air pollution. It is defined as the presence of one or more contaminants such as dust gas mist odor smoke smog etc. Causes harm to human plants animals or property.

Pollutants :

Pollutants Primary pollutants Sulphur dioxide SOx Coal fire ,thermal power plants ,smelting industry ,fertilizer industry ,chemical industry ,refinery Carbon monoxide CO Combustion of fossil fuels in automobile ,thermal power plants ,transport sector. Particulate matters Aerosols ,soot ,smoke ,dust ,asbestos ,pesticides some metals (Hg ,Pb ,Cu ,Fe etc.) ,biological agents such as pollen.

Pollutants :

Pollutants Primary pollutants Hydrocarbons /VOCs HC Decomposition of organic matter ,plants ( pine tree, rice plants ) NOx Combustion of fossil fuels in automobile ,thermal power plants ,transport sector Fluorides HF Heating of clay ,rocks ,coal or ores ,volcanic eruption ,glass factories ,phosphate & aluminum industry ,etc

Pollutants :

Pollutants Secondary pollutants Solar radiation ,water vapour ,ozone Sun ,HC and NO. Photochemical smog (O3+PAN+Nox =brown air) Due to traffic – congested in metropolitan city where warm condition and intense solar radiation are present . PAN (peroxiacetyl nitrate ) HC and NO.

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on human health Suspended particulate matters (SPM) Respiratory illness like asthma ,chronic bronchitis ,damage of lung tissues ,cancer Lead Lung cancer ,detrimental effect on children's brain. Pd ,Cd ,Hg ,As Cause carcinogenic and mutagenic effect. COx CO +Hb =carboxyhaemoglobin ,headache ,fatigue ,dizziness .

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on human health One packet cigarettes produces carboxy Hb levels 5-10 % in blood of smokers .Because it contains 400-500 ppm CO. Benzene and its derivatives (formaldehyde ) cancer SOx Lung diseases ,cough & choking .chronic asthma ,

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on human health NOx Heart & lung problem ,may cause cancer ,irritates mucous membrane (low ) ,bronchitis ,gum inflammation ,internal bleeding ,pneumonia &O2 deficiency (high) Excess fluorides fluorosis Ozone Eye damage ,lung disease ,loss of immune system . PAN Acute irritation of eye ,negative effect on respiratory system

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on plants Metallic particulate pollutants Metabolic activities in plants SO2 Stop plants growth ,bleaching of chlorophyll, leaf necrosis (brown & black spot on leaf)

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on plants NOx Chlorosis Fluoride Damages of fruit O3 Reduce growth rate ,damage of plant life .death of white pine tree. PAN Damage of chloroplast

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on materials Metallic particulates ,dust ,aerosol Damage to sculpture and monuments ,lowering the temperature of earth's surface . SO2 Acid rain damages stone ,historic monuments & other materials ,metal corrosion .

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on materials NOx Reduces the fiber strength of cotton and rayon ,metal corrosion Fluoride Damages of fruit O3 An effected oxidants corrodes the heritage building surfaces ,damages marble statues ,rubber cracking . PAN Damage of chloroplast

Effects of air pollution :

Effects of air pollution Effects on aquatic life Acid rain Negative effect on aquatic ecosystem PH decrease in fish population .cause water pollution. Heavy metals May cause health hazards to aquatic animal ,plants , and through food chain other organisms.

Control measure :

Control measure Polluting industrial units: On May 26, 2011 the Haryana State Pollution Control Board has ordered closure of 639 polluting industrial units in 2010-11 and directed the highly polluting industries to set up continuous online monitoring stations to ensure compliance of standards of air emissions. Brick kilns are noxious sources of pollution: India’s 100,000 brick kilns are noxious sources of pollution, particularly soot.

Pollution control:

Pollution control Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment.

Pollution control:

Pollution control In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development , low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff

Pollution control:

Pollution control " The solution to pollution is dilution "

Control:

Control Suitable fuel selection Modification in industrial processes Modification of equipments Correct selection of manufacturing site Use of catalytic converter in combustion engine to reduce CO NOx & HC. Control of particulate matters by collectors & scrubbers.

Control:

Control Control of gaseous pollutants through combustion ,absorption ,adsorption technique. Use of efficient engine . Lead free petrol Preference of public transport . Use of clean fuel .

Air pollution - Courtesy Nasa:

Air pollution - Courtesy Nasa The environmental problems in India are growing rapidly. The increasing economic development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one billion people today is putting a strain on the environment, infrastructure, and the country’s natural resources. Industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid industrialization,  urbanization, and land degradation are all worsening problems. Overexploitation of the country's resources be it land or water and the industrialization process has resulted environmental degradation of  resources . Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems facing humanity and other life forms on our planet today.

Important :

Important The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die  prematurely every year as a result of Air pollution , while many more suffer from breathing ailments, heart disease, lung infections and even cancer . There are four reasons of air pollution are - emissions from vehicles, thermal power plants, industries and refineries. The problem of indoor air pollution in rural areas and urban slums has increased . CNG is not without environmental drawbacks says a new Central Pollution Control Board study on January 05, 2011. The study says burning CNG has the highest rates of potentially hazardous carbonyl emissions.

Important :

Important According to a study published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology (EST) in the first week of October 2010, almost 8,000 people will die due to aircraft pollutants this year, and 3,500 of them would be from India and China. Vehicle emissions are responsible for 70% of the country’s air pollution. Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Studies estimate that 10 per cent of Bangalore’s 60 lakh population and over 50 per cent of its children below 18 years suffer from air pollution- related diseases

Important:

Important The CSE report has made extensive analysis of environment degradation and pollution due to mining, wherein it has said, in 2005-06 alone 1.6 billion tonnes of waste and overburden from coal, iron ore, limestone and bauxite have added to environment pollution. With the annual growth of mining at 10.7 per cent and 500-odd mines awaiting approval of the Centre, the pollution would increase manifold in the coming years.

Case study :

Case study Bhopal gas tragedy was the greatest  industrial disaster in the world that took place at a Union Carbide pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh . At midnight on 3 December 1984, the plant accidentally released methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, exposing more than 500,000 people to MIC and other chemicals . The first official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release. Others estimate 8,000-10,000 died within 72 hours and 25,000 have since died from gas-related diseases, making it the deadliest man-made environmental disaster in history. The brilliant white of the famous Taj Mahal is slowly fading to a sickly yellow.

Think !! :

Think !! Delhi third most polluted city in India - Indian cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Ludhiana and Kanpur are among the worst ...

Water pollution :

Water pollution On the basis of origin ,sources of water pollutants may be : Point source -: sewage outlet of a municipal area or from factories. Non point sources -: agricultural run off, constructional sediments , etc.

Pollutants :

Pollutants Pollutants may : biological –viruses ,bacteria ,protozoa ,algae. chemical –biocides ,polychlorinated biphenyls,phosphate ,metals , etc. physical –oil spills ,hot water from any source.

Sources of pollution :

Sources of pollution Sediments Sewage Disease causing agents Inorganic plant nutrients Industrial waste water Organic & inorganic chemicals Radio active substances Thermal pollution

Effect of water pollution :

Effect of water pollution On aquatic ecosystem- water having less than 8 mgpl considered as contaminated .less than 4 mgpl heavily polluted BOD is a measure of oxygen required by aerobic decomposers for the for the biochemical degradation of organic materials in water. BOD is inverse proportion of DO. COD is measure of oxygen equivalent of the requirement for oxidation of total organic matter present in water .

Effect of water pollution :

Effect of water pollution Biological magnification Eutrophication Effect on human health .

Case study :

Case study Contaminated and polluted water now kills more people than all forms of violence including wars, according to a United Nations report released on March 22, 2010 on World Water Day that calls for turning unsanitary wastewater into an environmentally safe economic resource .

Case study :

Case study According to the report -- titled "Sick Water?" -- 90 percent of wastewater discharged daily in developing countries is untreated, contributing to the deaths of some 2.2 million people a year from diarrheal diseases caused by unsafe drinking water and poor hygiene. At least 1.8 million children younger than 5 die every year from water-related diseases.

Case study :

Case study New Delhi's body of water is little more than a flowing  garbage dump, with fully 57 percent of the city's waste finding its way to the Yamuna. It is that three billion liters of waste are pumped into Delhi's Yamuna ( River Yamuna ) each day. Only 55 percent of the 15 million Delhi residents are connected to the city's sewage system

Case study :

Case study Pollution due to Mining New Delhi-based Center for Science and Environment (CSE) on December 29, 2007 said mining was causing displacement, pollution, forest degradation and social unrest. According to the Centre for Science and Environment ( CSE) report the top 50 mineral producing districts, as many as 34 fall under the 150 most backward districts identified in the country.

Water pollution :

Water pollution STOP

Sources of pollution :

Sources of pollution Pollution due to biomedical waste Pollution due to biomedical waste is likely to spread disease dangerous to life and making atmosphere noxious to health. In early April, 2010 a machine from pollution due to e-Waste A UN environmental conference in Cartagena, Colombia, attended by more than 170 countries in October 2011, has agreed to accelerate a global ban on the export of hazardous waste, including old electronics and discarded computers and mobile phones, from developed to developing countries. Environmental campaigners

Sources of pollution :

Sources of pollution Delhi's air is choking with pollutant PM 2.5 that is only 2.5 microns in diameter and is very very small particle. Being so small, it escapes emission apparatus prescribed by  Euro II and III

Pollution data :

Pollution data The UNEP report "Recycling – from E-Waste to Resources" was released on the Indonesian island of Bali on February 22, 2010 at the start of a week-long meeting of officials and environmentalists. According to the report's authors by 2020 e-waste in South Africa and China will have jumped by 200-400 per cent from 2007 levels, and by 500 per cent in India .

Pollution data :

Pollution data India produces about 3,80,000 tonnes of e-Waste per annum, which includes only the waste generated out of television sets, mobile phones and PCs, a major chunk of which comes from organizations.  E-waste produced in India includes over 100,000 tonnes from refrigerators, 275,000 tonnes from TVs, 56,300 tonnes from personal computers, 4,700 tonnes from printers and 1,700 tonnes from mobile phones .

Pollution data :

Pollution data The un- organized recycling sector which fails to practice eco-friendly e-Waste recycling methods release large amount of toxic chemicals. The toxic gases and the large volume of Electronic Waste Adds environmental Pollution in India

Pollution data :

Pollution data India imports almost 50,000 tonnes of e-waste yearly . It generated 330,000 tonnes of e-waste in 2007 and the number is expected to touch 470,000 tonnes by 2011, according to a study on e-waste assessment conducted  jointly by MAIT and the German government’s sustainable development body GTZ. in April 2010.

Mahatma Ghandhi on Environmental pollution:

Mahatma Ghandhi on Environmental pollution Mahtma Gandhi had said that nature has enough to satisfy everyone’s need but has not enough to satisfy man’s greed. Sadly our ever-expanding greed has put us in such precarious situation. Will we realize it? The policy of industrialization had helped rich to become richer and poor become poorer. The disparity has widened. It is the democratic system followed in the country which has forced our policy-makers to think of growth for all. That is why we are hearing plans for inclusive growth. Industrialization is not without price. All these have a direct bearing on environmental pollution leading to climatic change. We are all witness to the deleterious effects of climate change. The whole world is now anxious to repair the damage.

Environmental effect :

Environmental effect Invasive alien species Invasive alien species are species whose introduction and/or  spread outside their natural habitats threatens biological diversity. They occur in all groups, including animals, plants, fungi, bacteria and viruses, and can affect all types of ecosystems. They can directly affect human health. Infectious diseases are often traced to IAS

Environmental effect :

Environmental effect Parthenium : Parthenium Hystrophorous a poisonous plant The parthenium now occupies 50 lakh hectares in the country and has become a major health hazard for people and animals . PROSOPIS JULIFLORA: Vilayati babul( prosopis juliflora ) was introduced in India in last century as a very promising species for the afforestation of dry and degraded land. But now it has emerged as a noxious invader that can grow in diverse ecosystems, enable it to wipe out other plant species in its surroundings

Poverty is the biggest polluter:

Poverty is the biggest polluter During his meet with editors on July 01, 2011 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh remarked that "poverty is the biggest polluter" and India needs to achieve a balance between environment and development - industrialization. Indira Gandhi, the former prime minister announced at the United Nations’ first environmental conference, in 1972, that “Poverty is the biggest polluter .”

The most polluted places in India:

The most polluted places in India Vapi in Gujarat and Sukinda in Orrisa is among the worlds top 10 most polluted places, according to the Blacksmith Institute, a New York-based nonprofit group. Vapi :  Potentially affected people: 71,000 -Pollutants: Chemicals and heavy metals due to its Industrial estates. Sukinda :  Potentially affected people: 2,600,000. -Pollutants: Hexavalent chromium due to its Chromite mines.

Is nuclear energy a solution of global warming?:

Is nuclear energy a solution of global warming? India a country of 1.1 billion people currently gets only a fraction of its electricity from nuclear power. Now the US atomic trade pact with India and an atomic energy pact with France,  India can fight global warming with clean nuclear energy. Nuclear energy has been recognized as a clean as CO 2 to the atmosphere after its reaction that could damage our environment. It is also known that nuclear energy has reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emission, reducing emissions of CO 2 for about 500 million metric tons of carbon.

Pollution due to Distilleries:

Pollution due to Distilleries The distillery sector is one of the seventeen categories of major polluting industries in India. These units generate large volume of dark brown coloured wastewater, which is known as ?spent wash?. Spent wash contains high organic pollutants such as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) - 85000 to 95,000 mg/l, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) - 45,000 to 60,000 mg/l .

Pollution due to Distilleries:

Pollution due to Distilleries Chemical Oxygen Demand  80,000 to 1, 20,000 mg/l. Thus, the distillery wastewater causes serious pollution problems in the recipient water bodies when discharged, resulting in depletion of dissolved oxygen in water and adverse affect on aquatic life, fish, phytoplankton etc. Also, it pollutes groundwater and drinking water when discharged on land. Application of distillery wastewater for irrigation of crops causes soil pollution i.e. salinity.

Reduce pollutions: suggestions:

Reduce pollutions: suggestions Projects to save Agra monuments back on trac The growing threat from pollution to India's prized monuments, including the Taj Mahal , has prompted the authorities to speed up action on March 22, 2011. The project aims to insulate the world heritage monuments, including Fatehpur Sikri , Agra Fort and the Taj Mahal . A set of eight schemes to control pollution and save these monuments has been submitted for clearance from the state government before being presented to the Planning Commission to include them in the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017).

Reduce pollutions: suggestions:

Reduce pollutions: suggestions World Bank Cooperation on India's Green Agenda India and the World Bank agreed on January 13, 2011 to further strengthen their partnership to advance India's green-growth agenda. The Bank will now support to strengthen Indian capacity of Central Pollution Controls Board, State Pollution Control Boards and biodiversity conservation in addition to other various projects for which financial support have already been given.

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant :

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant Indian scientists aim to built an advanced ultra-super critical coal-fired power plant in the next six years. Once realised , the plant is expected to put India in a very select group of nations having the technology which would reduce the amount of pollution  when compared with the current thermal power plants.

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant :

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant Green Court launched India launched a "green" court on October 19, 2010 to make polluters pay damages as it steps up its policing of the country's environmental laws. Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said India was only the third country in the world after Australia and New Zealand to set up such a tribunal. "This is the first body of its kind (in India) to apply the polluter pays principle and the principle of sustainable development ,”

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant :

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant . National Action Plan on Climate Change The Centre has made a provision of Rs. 25,000 crore to mitigate the effects of climate change, a serious problem that India will face in the coming decades, Minister of State for Environment and Forests Jairam Ramesh told the Rajya Sabha on August 21, 2010. Besides , the Finance Ministry has also sanctioned Rs. 5,000 crore as recommended by the 13th Finance Commission to tackle this serious problem ,

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant :

India to build advanced coal-fired power plant . Mr . Ramesh said  About 220 scientists from 120 research institutions were working on assessing the impact of climate change on agriculture, water, health and forests. Steps in Budget 2010-11 for the Environment The increased pollution levels associated with industrialisation and urbanisation , a number of proactive steps have been proposed in the Union Budget (2010-11) . The major steps include

Super bug:

Super bug Delhi's air is choking with pollutant PM 2.5 that is only 2.5 microns in diameter and is very very small particle. Being so small, it escapes emission apparatus prescribed by  Euro II and III.  Any kind of combustion, especially of vehicular origin, contains this particle. If PM 2.5 is not regulated it will ensure major health hazards. The

Control :

Control RECYCLING REUSING REDUCING MITIGATING PREVENTING

Acid Rain:

Acid Rain

Educational Objectives:

Educational Objectives To understand how the pH level of an environment affects living organisms. To understand the relationship between the pH level and CO 2 concentration of distilled water.

What is Acid Rain:

What is Acid Rain Formed when gases, such as CO 2 and SO 2 react with the water in the atmosphere The pH of Rain drops As low as pH of 2 Very harmful to our living environment

Examples:

Examples When CO 2 reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed. CO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l)-  H 2 CO 3 ( aq ) When SO 2 reacts with water, sulfurous acid is formed. SO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l)-  H 2 SO 3 ( aq ) When NO 2 reacts with water, nitric acid is formed . 2NO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l)-  HNO 2 ( aq )+HNO 3 ( aq )

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Non-point source pollutants - nutrients

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Non point source examples

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Non-point Sources Diffuse source or many smaller point sources Automobiles Fertilizer on fields

How does acid kill the fish? One way is mobilizing metals:

How does acid kill the fish? One way is mobilizing metals When all base cations are striped from soils Acid now reacts with metals e.g. aluminum Normally aluminum is immobile below pH 5 - mobile aluminum Fish breath in the water Aluminum comes out of solution Clogs gills - suffocate

Where is ozone the “bad guy”?:

Where is ozone the “bad guy”? trophosphere stratosphere

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Recent and current policies to reduce acid precipitation and Nitrogen emissions are shifting the problem from one area to another While emissions are remaining stable or decreasing in already Heavily impacted areas, they are increasing in formerly “clean” or relatively unimpacted areas (including other countries!) Nitrogen is only one compound important in acid rain and pollutant emissions to the atmosphere sulfur – SOx – has been a relative success story mercury is not an acid forming element, but is extremely toxic and is still increasing Acid Rain Summary

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Europe The US Capitol

Acid Rain and Buildings:

Acid Rain and Buildings Many buildings are made of concrete and or stone These compounds act as bases and react with acid The building technically “weathers” very fast, or Non technically “crumbles”

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Forests affected by Acid Rain Northeast US Canada Northern Europe Asia

Acid Rain and Trees:

Acid Rain and Trees

Acid Rain:

Acid Rain Reactions to convert to acid take place in ~2 days - travel 1000 miles Down wind - Acid rain Dry Dep. vs Wet Dep. Dry Deposition 50 % of total Can react with plants - strip nutrients Tree dieback

PowerPoint Presentation:

http://www.earthday.gov/ Today is Earth Day, April 22 nd 2003

How does Acid Rain effect us:

How does Acid Rain effect us It kills micro-organisms It poisons plants It damages metals and limestone It kills fish

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. Dr. Krishna Mohan Ishwar

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