Ecosystem: Ecosystem Term given by A.C.Tansley (1935) It Is A Biological Entity It Includes Both Biotic & Abiotic Components An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between all living and non-living things It tells that how do living and non-living things interact in an environment? What is a Ecosystem?: What is a Ecosystem? An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between all living and non-living things How do living and non-living things interact in an environment? A system resulting from the interaction of all living and non living factors of environment. What is an ecosystem?: What is an ecosystem? System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system PowerPoint Presentation: Living things + Nonliving things ECOSYSTEM “ our environment is enriched with abiotic & biotic resources . Biotic community undergo a life cycle .this life can flourish in such an environment ,full of food ,nutrients ,energy and their continuous flow .such a system is called ecosystem.” PowerPoint Presentation: How can humans help to prevent changes in ecosystems? Use resources wisely 3.Laws that control pollution 3 Clean up litter 4.Keep rivers and lakes clean 1 PowerPoint Presentation: What causes ecosystems to change? Natural causes: Drought Disease Fire Overpopulation 2 1 4 PowerPoint Presentation: What makes ecosystems different? Amount of water Amount of sunlight 3 Type of soil 1 2 ECOSYSTEM : ECOSYSTEM The self-sustaining structural and functional interaction between living and non-living components. OR, MORE SIMPLY: OR, MORE SIMPLY an ecosystem is composed of the organisms and physical environment of a specified area. SIZE: MICRO To MACRO Autotrophs: Autotrophs Autotrophs (=self-nourishing) are called primary producers . Photoautotrophs fix energy from the sun and store it in complex organic compounds (= green plants, algae, some bacteria) photoautotroph simple inorganic compounds complex organic compound s light An ecosystem has abiotic and biotic components::
An ecosystem has abiotic and biotic components: ABIOTIC components :
provides practically all the energy for ecosystems. Inorganic substances , e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems. Organic compounds , such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system.
BIOTIC components: plants ,animals ,micro- orgagisms.: BIOTIC components: plants ,animals ,micro- orgagisms . The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition . In this type of classification, there are: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs AIR WATER SOIL SUNLIGHT: AIR WATER SOIL SUNLIGHT ABIOTIC COMPONENTS COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM: COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM Biotic Components-: All living things Producers(plants, animals,& some bacterias ) Consumers ( herbivores, carnivores, omnivores,& scavengers) In addition there is decomposers that help in elements recycling process Abiotic components: Abiotic components Physical factors -: sunlight,temperature,rainfall,soiltype,water Chemical factors -:nutrients (C,H,N,P,O,S etc.) ,salts,organic substance,toxicants PowerPoint Presentation: An ecosystem consists of two main components Abiotic or Non-living components. 1. Inorganic substances 2. Organic compounds 3. Climatic factors Biotic or Living components. 1. Autotrophs or Producers 2. Heterotrophs or Consumers 3. Decomposers or Saprotrophs Components Types of ecosystem-ecosystem shows large variations in their size ,structure ,& composition. however ,all the ecosystems are characterized by certain basic structure & function: Types of ecosystem -ecosystem shows large variations in their size ,structure ,& composition. however ,all the ecosystems are characterized by certain basic structure & function Natural ecosystem –It is self sustaining system which is controlled by nature. Terrestrial (forest ,grassland , desert ,etc.) Aquatic (fresh & marine) Artificial Ecosystem -: aquarium , crop land ,etc. Functional attributes-every E S perform regulation function ,habitat function, production function, information function: Functional attributes-every E S perform regulation function ,habitat function, production function, information function Artificial ecosystem/man made- Terrestrial & aquatic-e.g. aquarium, crop land etc. PowerPoint Presentation: Natural 1.Terrestrial ecosystems (grasslands, forests, desert ecosystems) 2.Aquatic ecosystem a.Lentic (Stagnant water) like lake, ponds etc. b.Lotic (Flowing water) like river, ocean, sea, etc. Artificial 1.A crop land, garden, aquarium, park, kitchen garden. TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM: TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM TERRESTRIAL AQUATIC FOREST DESERT GRASSLAND FRESHWATER MARINE WATER Forest Ecosystems: Forest Ecosystems Forest Forests: Forests Coniferous Forest: Coniferous Forest Grows in places with very cold winters and cool summers. The leaves look like needles so they don’t need very much water. Seeds grow in cones. Get less rain than all the other forests. Seed cone Coastal Forest: Coastal Forest Grows in places where there is lots of rain. Temperature is not too hot or too cold, just cool. Has three layers just like the rain forest: canopy, understory, forest floor. Tropical Rain Forest: Tropical Rain Forest These trees grow in places that are hot and wet all year. Trees are very tall and the leaves are always green. The forest has three layers. Forest floor Understory Canopy Deciduous Forest : Deciduous Forest Large, flat leaves that drop off in the Fall, new leaves grow in Spring. Leaves change color with the seasons. These trees grow in places that have warm, wet summers and cold winters. Winter Desert Ecosystem: Desert Ecosystem By Allison Poillot Climate: Climate The desert is very dry and warm. A very little amount of rain rains a year. Some deserts can be over 100 degrees F. That’s so hot. Location: Location The desert is located 30 degrees latitude. Some deserts are in the Mountains. The Mojave desert is the name of the desert that is located here in California. Desert Animals: Desert Animals Many animals live in the desert. These animals can survive in this hot weather. Let me name some of them. The camel, lizards, rattlesnakes, kangaroo rats, and more! Desert Plants: Desert Plants Now I would like to tell you about the desert plants. These plants can survive in the hot weather because the don’t need much water . These plants live in the desert. The cactus, saguaro, creosote bushes, and other plants. Desert Ecosystems: Desert Ecosystems LOCATION Desert – an ecosystem found where there is very little rainfall.: Desert – an ecosystem found where there is very little rainfall. Deserts are dry and hot. There are very few clouds. Two kinds of deserts: Hot deserts Cold deserts Hot deserts Temperatures are very warm all year round The summers are very hot Cold deserts Short, warm summers Long, cold winters Found in places near the north and south poles Desert Plants: Desert Plants Many plants are found in the desert. They usually grow close to the ground. These plants have special parts that help them save water. The special parts are: thick stem, shallow and wide roots, and thick skin covered with spines instead of leaves. Desert Animals: Desert Animals There are many animals in the desert. They can survive by eating other animals or by eating plants that store water. To protect them from the hot sun, they stay in the shade or in their shelter. Animals may build their shelters inside plants. Some animals sleep during the day and are active at night. Some animals have hard shells to protect them from losing much water. More animals live in hot deserts than in cold deserts. PowerPoint Presentation: Roadrunner Anteater Scorpion Gila monster (lizard) Camel Deserts in the United States: Deserts in the United States Great Basin Desert Mojave Desert Chihuahua Desert Sonoran Desert Great Basin Desert: Great Basin Desert California Nevada Idaho Utah Mojave Desert: Mojave Desert California Nevada Arizona Utah Chihuahuan Desert: Chihuahuan Desert Arizona New Mexico Texas Sonorant Desert: Sonorant Desert California Arizona DESERT IN INDIA: DESERT IN INDIA Kutch Deserts THAR DESERT DESERT IN S.AFRICA: DESERT IN S.AFRICA SAHARA /KALAHARI PowerPoint Presentation:
Algerian desert part of the Sahara located in Algeria Blue Desert – a desert in
Kalahari Desert – a desert covering much of Botswana and parts of Namibia and South Africa Karoo – a semi-desert region in South Africa Libyan Desert – part of the Sahara located in
Namib Desert – a desert in present day Namibia Nubian Desert – a desert in present day Sudan Owami Desert – a desert in Nigeria Sahara Desert – the world's largest hot desert covering most of Northern Africa White Desert – a desert in Egypt
PowerPoint Presentation: Grasslands What is a grassland?: What is a grassland? Regions with enough average annual precipitation to allow grass to prosper but with precipitation so erratic that drought and fire prevent large stands of trees from growing. Where are Grasslands?: Where are Grasslands? Grasslands can be found on all continents except Antarctica . Three Main Types of Grasslands: Three Main Types of Grasslands Tropical /Temperate /Polar (tundra) Tropical Grasslands: Tropical Grasslands Found in areas with high average temperatures, low to moderate precipitation, and a prolonged dry season. They are widely spread on either side of the equator beyond the borders of tropical rain forests. A type of tropical grassland is a savanna. Savannas: Savannas Have warm temperatures year round, two prolonged dry seasons, and abundant rain the rest of the year. Largest Savannas are found in central and southern Africa, but can also be found in Central South America, Australia, and Southeast Asia. Savanna Species: Savanna Species Common Savanna animal species include wildebeests, gazelles, zebras, giraffes, antelopes, cheetahs, lions, hyenas, eagles, and hawks. Many large Savanna animal species are killed for their economically valuable coats and parts (tigers), tusks (rhinoceroses), and ivory tusks (elephants). Some Savanna plant species include Bermuda grass, candelabra tree, elephant grass, gum tree eucalyptus, whistling thorn, and river bush willow. Temperate Grasslands: Temperate Grassl ands Cover vast expanses of plains and gently rolling hills in the interiors of North and South America, Europe, and Asia. Winters are bitterly cold, summers are hot and dry, and annual precipitation is fairly sparse and falls unevenly through the year. Types of temperate grasslands are the tall-grass prairies and short-grass prairies of the Midwestern and western US and Canada, South American pampas, African veldt, and steppes of central Europe and Asia. Prairie Prairie Species: Prairie Species Common prairie animal species include the American Bald Eagle, bobcat, bumble bee, coyote, prairie dog, and swift fox. Some prairie plant species include big bluestem grass, blue grama grass, buffalo grass, milkweed, and stinging nettle. Food Web (Prairie): Food Web (Prairie) Symbiotic Relationship: Symbiotic Relationship Certain types of ants and aphids have a relationship known as mutualism, a type of symbiosis, in which species help each other to survive. Aphids, tiny slow-moving insects, live on plants. They feed on nectar, which they suck out of plant stems with their long, pointed mouths. As the aphids digest the nectar, it is formed into a sugary substance called honeydew. The aphids then release honeydew through specialized organs called cornices. Honeydew is one of the ants favorite food. The ants eat as much honeydew as the aphids can produce. The ants treat the aphids like their own private heard. By keeping the aphids close to them at all times, ants have a natural food supply. Abiotic Factors of Grasslands: Abiotic Factors of Grasslands Soil Sunlight Water Rocks Air Soil: Soil Aboveground parts of most of the grasses die and decompose each year, allowing organic matter to accumulate and produce a deep, fertile soil. The soil is held in place by a thick network of intertwined roots of drought-tolerant grasses. Because of their thick and fertile soils, temperate grasslands are plowed up and widely used to grow crops. The plowing however breaks up the soil leaving it vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. Environmental Damage and Solutions (cont’d): Environmental Damage and Solutions (cont’d) If grasslands do not have any animal impact, they will deteriorate, especially in very dry areas. When grazing animals leave an ecosystem, damage to the land will occur. Example: Nevada used to be a grassland 100 years ago, but today it is mostly an arid desert. Animal impact is the most effective way known to renew the damaged land and deserts. Today, animal impact is used worldwide to: Help vegetation in mine dumps in Nevada and Arizona, U.S.A. Restore decertified grasslands in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and the western U.S. Control invasive weeds in South Africa, Oregon and Montana. Repair erosion damage in Mexico and California. Prevent soil-surface erosion in Australia Build new topsoil at rates of up to 1" per year Increase the ability of soil to absorb water in Australia, Africa, and New Mexico. Encourage biodiversity in Australia, Africa and the western US. Environmental Damage and Solutions: Environmental Damage and Solutions Grasslands are adapted to high levels of animal impact by herds of animals. Animal impact includes dunging, urinating, trampling, rubbing, wallowing, salivating, etc. Their trampling and dunging is extremely beneficial to the land and has maintained the grasslands for millions of years. The beneficial effects of animal impact exist only on high impact for a short duration. Low impact for a long duration leads to environmental damage because plants and soils do not get a chance to recover and restore itself, therefore becoming overgrazed. Animal impact maintains grasslands by: Planting seeds and guaranteeing good seed-to-soil contact Breaking soil crusts that obstruct the process of seed germination and rainfall absorption Pruning plants to keep them fertile and active Eliminating weeds Mulching the soil surface with trampled vegetation, which protects it from erosion and reduces soil surface evaporation Composting plant material Fertilizing the soil Example of a Human Impact: Example of a Human Impact Indian tribes and wildlife used to settle on the vast grasslands of the Great Plains in the United States. The settlers brought cattle and sheep which grazed the plains. Settlers farmed the land and plowed the topsoil. But in the 1930’s, there was an eight-year drought which brought major wind and dust storms. As a result, the soil became dry and loose and crops could not grow. Because humans allowed the natural grassland ecosystems to be overgrazed and improperly utilized, the land was unable to endure such a long drought. The government set up regulations to help the farmers restore the land. The Dust Bowl. Major Human Impacts on Grasslands: Major Human Impacts on Grasslands Conversion of savanna and temperate grassland to cropland. Release of carbon dioxide to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland. Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY RESTORATION ECOLOGY ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY RESTORATION ECOLOGY ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT Fresh & marine What are the basic needs of aquatic biota?: What are the basic needs of aquatic biota? CO 2 O 2 Sunlight Nutrients- food & minerals What factors can alter aquatic ecosystems?: What factors can alter aquatic ecosystems? Humans! Find food Recreation Waste disposal Cooling of power plants Transportation Dams, canals What factors influence the availability of those basic needs?: What factors influence the availability of those basic needs? Substances dissolved in water- Nitrates, phosphates, potassium, O 2 Suspended matter- (silt, algae) can affect light penetration Depth Temperature Rate of flow Bottom characteristics (muddy, sandy, or rocky) Internal convection currents Connection to or isolation from other aquatic ecosystems. Types of Aquatic Ecosystems: Types of Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems Standing Water- lakes & ponds Moving Water- rivers & streams Transitional Communities Estuaries Wetlands- bogs/fens, swamps, marshes Marine Ecosystems Shorelines Barrier Islands Coral Reefs Open Ocean Freshwater Ecosystems: Freshwater Ecosystems Usually 0.005% salt Some exceptions: Great Salt Lakes- 5-27% salt Dead Sea- 30% salt Moving water- high elevations; cold; high O 2 ; trout; streamlined plants Standing water- lower elevations; warmer; less O 2 ; bass, amphibians; cattails, rushes How is a lake stratified and what lives in each level?: How is a lake stratified and what lives in each level? Epilimnion- upper layer of warm water; high light & O 2 ; ex: water striders, phyto- & zooplankton, fish Thermocline (mesolimnion); middle layer; medium light & O 2 ; ex: phyto- & zooplankton, fish Hypolimnion- lower layer of cold water; lower light & O 2 ; ex: fish Benthos- bottom level; no light & little O 2 ; ex: anaerobic bacteria, leeches; insect larvae Littoral- near the shoreline; cattails, rushes, amphibians, etc. Transitional Communities: Transitional Communities ESTUARIES Where freshwater dumps into ocean Brackish (less salty than seawater) Has rich sediments that often form deltas Productive & biodiverse Organisms adapted to varying levels of salinity as tide ebbs & flows “Nursery” for larval forms of many aquatic species of commercial fish & shellfish Transitional Communities: Transitional Communities WETLANDS Land saturated at least part of the year Swamps- have trees like bald cypress; high productivity Marshes- no trees; tall grasses; high productivity Bogs/Fens - may or may not have trees; waterlogged soil with lots of peat; low productivity Fens- fed by groundwater & surface runoff Bogs- fed by precipitation Bog Fen Marsh Swamp Importance of Wetlands: Importance of Wetlands Highly productive- get lots of sunlight, ↑ plants = ↑ animals Nesting, breeding ground for migratory birds Slows flooding by absorbing runoff Silt settles, making water clearer & nutrient rich Trap & filter water Natural chemical rxns neutralize and detoxify pollutants Gives H 2 O time to percolate thru soil & replenish underground aquifers. Threats- artificial eutrophication (see slide 13), draining, sedimentation via construction “Nature’s Septic Tank” Marine Ecosystems: Marine Ecosystems SHORELINES Rocky coasts- great density & diversity attached to solid rock surface Sandy beaches- burrowing animals Threats- due to hotels, restaurants, homes on beach, more plant life destroyed, destabilizing soil, susceptible to wind & water erosion Insurance high; danger of hurricanes, erosion Build sea walls to protect people but changes & endangers shoreline habitat Marine Ecosystems: Marine Ecosystems BARRIER ISLANDS Low, narrow offshore islands Protect inland shores from storms Beauty attracts developers = developers destroy land New coastal zoning laws protect future development MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: MARINE ECOSYSTEMS CORAL REEFS Clear, warm shallow seas Made up of accumulated calcareous (made of calcium) skeletons of coral animals Formation depends on light penetration. Have a symbiotic relationship with algae Very diverse, abundant (rainforests of sea) Threats- destructive fishing (cyanide & dynamite to stun fish), pet trade; about 3/4ths have been destroyed What factors can alter aquatic ecosystems?: What factors can alter aquatic ecosystems? Natural Succession- normal cycle of pond becoming forest Artificial Succession- humans add N & P to water via fertilizer & sewage causing succession to happen faster = EUTROPHICATION Learner Expectations: Learner Expectations Content Standard: Interactions Between Living Things and Their Environment. The student will investigate how living things interact with one another and with non-living elements of their environment. Learning Expectations: Investigate the relationships among organisms in a specific ecosystem. BALANCEDED ECOSYSTEM: BALANCEDED ECOSYSTEM HIMALAYA: HIMALAYA It is the highest mountain range. Flora fauna of himalayas varies with the altitudes. Like lowland forests to alpine trees. It is the energy bank in terms of wind energy and hydro energy almost all rivers of north india originates from himalayas. Characteristics : Characteristics Mountains cover 20% of the land area. Going up the mountain is similar to moving from equator to north pole. Mountain are the reservoirs of water. A big bank of biodiversity. MOUNTAINS: MOUNTAINS Mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. Importance for man: Importance for man We think desert as a non arable waste land but it contains lot of minerals which can be harvested by making judicial use of it. The top soil is fertile but very susceptible to erosion. It can be saved by afforestation. Minerals like silica, gypsum, borates are very commonly found. It’s a very big area which should be converted into arable. The Thar desert: The Thar desert Third largest desert in the world. Most populous desert. Spread over four states in India and two in Pakistan. Annual rainfall is 100-500mm The only river in the region is Ghaggar. shrubs and grasses like babul , khejra and trees like ber are found. Many reptiles and snakes are endemic to the region also. Contd…: Contd… Cold deserts Commonly known as ‘tundra’ Land is covered by a thick layer of ice. Whatever falls remain frozen. Vegetation is very on the surface. The leaves are covered by wax. Animals have thick layer of fat under the skin and a fur coating above it. Types of deserts: Types of deserts Hot desert Formed of ergs or regs Water is very scarce. Temperature is very high during day and very low at night. Vegetations known as ‘xerophytes’ have modifications like pulpy stem to store water and wax covered thorny leaves to reduce transpiration. The roots are very long to reach the water table. Animals such as reptiles, rodents, wolves etc hide themselves in daylight and come out at night. PowerPoint Presentation: Water budget =P-PE(+/-)S where P = precipitation PE = potential evaporation S = amount of surface storage of water If PE exceeds enormously from P then a dry condition prevails and if it continues then deserts get formed. PowerPoint Presentation: It covers 1/5 th of earth’s land surface. Most of the deserts are composed of sand (ergs) and rocky surface ( reg ). Other deserts known as cold desert is fully covered by ice and almost no vegetation. Temperature ranges from 50 degree C to nearly zero level within a single day. These have high biodiversity. Plants and animals have different morphological and anatomical modifications to reduce water loss from the body. DESERT: DESERT A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. <250 mm per annum. grassland: grassland Used as grasslands for grazing livestock. Savannas are tropical grasslands with widely scattered clumps of low trees. Large scale conversion of grasslands into croplands as they are well suited to agriculture. GRASSLANDS: GRASSLANDS Grasslands are regions where average precipitation is high(250-1500mm) for grass and for trees to grow. Rainfall are erratic and uncertain in these regions. Regions found is central &south America, sub equatorial Africa &south Australia ,South India. Soils rich and deep ideal for grasses. Effect of human activity: Effect of human activity Dams build in forest areas for hydropower and water drown huge areas ,destroying species and depriving people of their land. In wilderness areas like the Arctic ,oil exploration and military activities disrupt the ecosystem ,contaminating areas and lead to decline of species. The harvesting of old growth forests destroys crucial habitat for endangered species. Impact of human activities and natural forces on the forest of India: Impact of human activities and natural forces on the forest of India Clearing and burning of the forests for agriculture, cattle rearing and timber extraction. Clear cutting and conversion of forest land in hilly areas for agriculture, plantation and housing. Forests affected by acid deposition originating from industries. Pesticides spraying to control insects in forest plantation leads to poisoning all the way up the food chain and unintended loss of species. TYPES OF FORESTS IN INDIA: TYPES OF FORESTS IN INDIA 80% of Indian forest is of four types. Forest type Area in India Place Tropical moist deci. 37% MP,GUJRAT,MAHA. TROPICAL DRY DECI. 28% HIMALAYA TO KANYAKUMARI SUBTROPICAL PINE 7% HIMALAYAS INDIAN FOREST SURVEY FOREST AREA: FOREST AREA AS per ministry of Environment and forest ,the total area covered under forest is 757010 Sq.km which is 23.03% of total geographical area of the country. As per 10 th plan Government has targeted to enlarge the forest cover to 25% of geographical area by 2007 and 33% by 2012. TREND ANALYSIS OF FOREST GROWTH IN INDIA (ALL FIGURES IN Sq. km): TREND ANALYSIS OF FOREST GROWTH IN INDIA (ALL FIGURES IN Sq. km) STATE OF FORESTS IN INDIA: STATE OF FORESTS IN INDIA As per report 2003 of Forest survey of India , Dehradun the forest cover in the country is 678,333 sq.km & constitutes 20.63% of its geographical area. Dense forest contributes 390,564sq.km(11.88%) & open forest 287,769(8.75%). In India M.P with 76429 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest among all States/UT’s followed by AP & Chandigarh. Coniferous forests: Coniferous forests Many coniferous trees are found in this region like spruce, fir, pine etc. Found in northern parts of Northern America, Europe and Asia. The soil in these forests is acidic and humus-rich. www.idiotica.com/.../images/coniferous.jpg Temperate forests: Temperate forests Cold in winter and warm & humid in summer. Annual rainfall is 750-2000 mm Soil is rich Found in western and Central Europe, eastern Asia and eastern North America. ewww.davidsuzuki.org/files/Forests/rivermeand Types of forests: Types of forests Tropical rainforests – hot & humid region -Annual rainfall- 2000 to 4500 mm. - Found in south and central America, Western & Central Africa, South East Asia, and some islands of Indian & Pacific Oceans. - Tropical forests are considered important because it helps in recycling water . personal.monm.edu/.../tropical-rainforest.jpg WORLD LAND USE PATTERN(FAO IN MILLER,2004): WORLD LAND USE PATTERN(FAO IN MILLER,2004) BIOME TYPE % OF LAND FOREST 32 RANGELAND& PASTURE 26 DESERT 20 CROPLAND 11 TUNDRA & WETLANDS 09 URBAN AREAS 02 TOTAL 100 PowerPoint Presentation: Climate, plants and animal species of region varies with latitude and longitude. The unique thing is that every species has adapted to the climate and has found its niche in the community. Why do different regions have different biomes?: Why do different regions have different biomes? Major reasons:- Temperature Precipitation The mean value of temperature and precipitation determines the kind of biomes in an area. NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE(NBR): NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE(NBR) Area = 5520 km 2 Included in UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2000. NBR contains Dry scrub, dry and moist deciduous Semi-evergreen and wet evergreen forests Two endangered species- the niligiri tahr and the lion-tailed Macaque PowerPoint Presentation: FUNCTIONS OF AN ECOSYSTEM The Producers, the green plants, fix radiant energy(solar energy) and with the help of minerals take from their edaphic(soil where they grow) or aerial environment and build up complex organic matter. These are their food. So, with the help of solar energy they convert the chemical energy of the food to kinetic energy and finally heat energy. The animals eat up plants and other animals as food. So, the energy is transferred through food to animals. When plants and animals die, then decomposers(like certain bacteria and fungi) act on their dead bodies and decompose them into simple materials like carbon dioxide, water and minerals which go back to air, water bodies and soil from where they were taken. What is a Population?: What is a Population? A population is one species living in a specific area. For example, all foxes living in an area form a population. Another example, all dandelions growing in an area form another population. PowerPoint Presentation: CONSERVATION OF ECOSYSTEM Forests are important components of our environment. Rapid destruction of this important resource is a cause of concern. Afforestation, preventing reckless cutting of trees and making everyone aware of the need to conserve it will help forest conservation. Nature enjoys ecological balance only if the relative number of species is not disturbed. So, conservation of wildlife is important for the future. National parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves are established to protect and conserve wildlife. Such measures would ensure that the wildlife does not become extinct. Conservation of aquatic life would be ensured by removal of industries near water bodies. PowerPoint Presentation: CONSERVATION OF WILDLIFE It is believed that if forest destruction is not checked then there is a fear that many birds and animals may become extinct. There must be a control over ruthless hunting. Suitable laws are to be made against it. National parks, biosphere reserves and zoological parks are to be set up to safe guard the lives of wild animals and birds. PowerPoint Presentation: CONSERVATION OF FORESTS Diversion of forest lands for other purposes have to be prevented. Reckless cutting of forests need to be checked. Steps have to be taken to stop shifting practice of cultivation. Forest fire is another cause of forest depletion which needs to be controlled effectively. Afforestation has to be taken up effectively. PowerPoint Presentation: ECOLOGICAL BALANCE IN NATURE The balance between the living beings and also with the non- living environment is called the Ecological Balance or simply a Balance in Nature. Unfortunately, however human activities have upset the ecological balance in nature, so it is more essential that balance in nature should be established soon because it is essential for our own existence . PowerPoint Presentation: IMPORTANCE OF ECOSYSTEM We know that no living organism can live in isolation. We cannot survive without producers in nature. All living beings depend on other living beings in the biological community. Not only they are dependent on one another, but also each of them exist in a certain proportion. This creates a complete balance in nature amongst living organisms. This is evident from the study of food chains which operate between living organisms. PowerPoint Presentation: The carbon dioxide from air, water and minerals from water bodies and soil are again taken up by green plants along with solar energy to make their food. This process is repeated again and again. This leads to continuous functioning of the ecosystem . PROCESS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE ECOSYSTEM What is a Community?: What is a Community? A community is formed from all living populations found in an area. All the foxes, dandelions, grasshoppers, snakes, hawks, deer, and skunks living in one area each form their individual populations, but together make up a community. PowerPoint Presentation: ENERGY FLOW THROUGH THE ECOSYSTEM The transfer of energy and matter takes place in the process of predator and prey relationship in a food chain. The original source of energy is the energy from the sun. Out of the enormous amount of energy continuously radiated by the sun, most of it is reflected or refracted back (by atmosphere, earth surface and object like plants). Only a very small fraction, about one per cent, of the solar energy received by the plant is used through the process of photosynthesis. PowerPoint Presentation: The carbon dioxide from air, water and minerals from water bodies and soil are again taken up by green plants along with solar energy to make their food. This process is repeated again and again. This leads to continuous functioning of the ecosystem . PROCESS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE ECOSYSTEM What is Ecology?: What is Ecology? Ecology is how living and non-living things affect each other in their environment. We have already named several living things found in a community. Can you name non-living things in your community? Non-living parts of your community: Non-living parts of your community Buildings Roads Bodies of water Automobiles Traffic lights Furnitures How non-living and living things affect each other: How non-living and living things affect each other Building more homes drives many animals out of their natural habitats or communities. Littering can destroy an animals habitat. Air pollution from automobiles and factories will affect the quality of life for all living things in a community, including people. Restoration Ethics: Restoration Ethics If habitat was filled with diseased, ugly organisms, should you return it to that state? Should you reintroduce mosquitoes, black flies, leeches, ticks, poisonous snakes? Should you improve on nature? Where do you find plants for restoration? Do you take from small population nearby or find larger population farther away? Is there more than one natural state? What is the history of the area? Since humans are part of nature, whatever changes we make to landscape also are natural. Is that true? Can we use nature to solve human problems? Read story on page 121 about Arcata, California’s artificial wetland project. Canal in China Before Canal in China After Notice plants used as filtering system Tools of Restoration: Tools of Restoration Prairies- collect native prairie grasses from graveyards and plant in abandoned farm fields to reestablish native grasslands Remove alien species- like privet @ nature center; hunting goats on Galapagos Walk away from ecosystem & let recover naturally- N. & S. Korea after the Korean War Preservationists vs. Restorationists: Preservationists vs. Restorationists Preservationist- don’t start destructive projects in the first place. Preserve nature- “you can’t always fix what you broke” Restorationists- you are never going to be able to save every bit of land. Who says changes we make in restoring ecosystems is unnatural? Are we members of the community or separate from it? Should we use our creative energies to try to improve nature, or should we leave well enough alone? The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology: The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology Re-creation - attempts to construct a new biological community on a site so severely disturbed that there is virtually nothing left to restore. - often must build a wetland elsewhere to make up for the one destroyed by developer - Read story of Army Corp of Engineers & Florida Everglades restoration The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology: The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology Reclamation- techniques used to restore the shape, original contour and vegetation of a disturbed site - Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act (SMCRA) requires mining operations to restore the open pit mines they create to natural state. Before After The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology: The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology Remediation- process of cleaning chemical contamination from a polluted area by physical or biological methods to protect human & ecosystem health - Incinerate soil contaminated with oil - use special bacteria to clean up oil spills in water (bioremediation) This is like an artificial wetland- wastewater comes in, settles, roots cleanse the water The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology: The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology Rehabilitation- to bring an area back to a useful state for human purposes rather than a truly natural state. - reverse deterioration if can’t be restored fully These people in Africa are trying to use rocks to create a sort of wind break to prevent wind erosion of their soil. The soil will never be like it was but it will hopefully be usable. The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology: The 5 “R’s” of Restoration Ecology Restoration- manipulation of nature to re-create species composition & ecosystem processes as close as possible to the state they were in before humans interfered. Before After RESTORATION ECOLOGY: RESTORATION ECOLOGY Repair or reconstruct ecosystems damaged by humans or natural forces Growing field of science People are now being held responsible for their actions- restoring wetlands & habitat for endangered species Before After LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY: LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Focus on how neighboring communities of a landscape interact LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY: LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Uses geographical information systems (GIS) to map patch size, type and configuration to create 3-D maps These maps assist land planners in analyzing land use patterns LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY: LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Landscape- geographic unit with a history that shapes the features of the land and organisms in it. Landscape ecology- the study of how landscape structure affects the abundance and distribution of organisms. Does not just focus on “untouched nature” PowerPoint Presentation: CREATING AWARENESS Awareness about ecosystem conservation can be done by posters, competitions about ecosystem conservation, arranging T.V. programmes and websites related to ecosystems. Review: Review What is a desert? How do plants survive in the desert? How do animals survive in the desert? Define ecosystem. Classify ecosystem with the help of flow diagram. Write down the components of ecosystem and explain the forest ecosystem in detail THE END : THE END Dr.K.M.Ishwar