Chapter09

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Chapter 9: Gender Inequality:

Chapter 9: Gender Inequality 1

Overarching questions:

Overarching questions Is gender biological, social, or both? Why is power invested in the male category? What does gender inequality look like and why? Why is gendered violence so commonplace? 2

“Gender warrior”:

“Gender warrior” 3

Sex and gender:

Sex and gender As sociologists we begin by separating sex and gender: Sex is a biological category. Gender is a social category. 4

Biological differentiation:

Biological differentiation Chromosomes XX and XY XXY or XYY can occur in rare cases Hormones Estrogen and testosterone The question : How important is biology in explaining behavioral differences? 5

Socialization and environment:

Socialization and environment Gender roles are learned via socialization, both early on and throughout life. Gender socialization now begins prior to birth. Varying social environments produce different versions of “man” and “woman.” Gender is socially constructed . 6

Language and gender socialization:

Language and gender socialization The language we use is not gender neutral; it is part of everyday life. Much language glorifies the male category and demeans the female. 7

Gendered language:

Gendered language Janet Shibley Hyde notes patterns in gendered language: Male as normative/female as exception Parallel words Infantilization of women Allowing language to devalue women and girls is part of socialization and contributes to inequality. 8

Doing gender:

Doing gender Gender is more than simply a learned role, though that role is important. Gender is something to be done—accomplished—each day. 9

Gender in time and space:

Gender in time and space Gender has not always looked the same: Consider changes in gender roles over the past 50 – 100 years here in the United States. Gender does not look the same across cultures: Mead’s research in New Guinea (1930s) showed significant variation between tribes and with outside cultures. 10

Gender in time and space:

Gender in time and space Gender is not always confined to male and female. Example: the Zuni berdache 11

Gender systems:

Gender systems Patriarchy refers to the gender system in societies where men are dominant. Nearly all societies are patriarchal, though the degree varies greatly. Gender inequality refers to the difference in power, status, access, and choices between men and women. 12

PowerPoint Presentation:

Figure 9.1 Women’s Participation in the Labor Force in the United States Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

Inequality at work:

Inequality at work Jobs gender-typed female are valued less and paid less. The gender gap in earnings has narrowed but remains in place (1970 – 2008). FT employees: 62%  80% Hourly: 64%  79% All employees: 46%  61% 14

Inequality at work:

Inequality at work Policies like comparable worth aim to remedy the pay gap, but have drawbacks. Informal structures such as the glass ceiling and glass escalator reproduce gender inequality by favoring male employees. Sexual harassment also continues to be a way for men to dominate women in the workplace. 15

Gender and family:

Gender and family The ongoing difficulty of balancing work and family rests largely on women. Managers see women as more tied to family than work. This affects women’s ability to get responsible positions. Women also continue to do significantly more housework than their spouses. 16

Gender and education:

Gender and education Differential treatment in schools perpetuates traditional gender socialization. More attention—positive and negative—is paid to boys. But something is changing: Today girls outperform boys on many measures. 17

Gender and politics:

Gender and politics In the United States, men outnumber women at all levels of political office, but especially at the state and national levels. Globally, some thirty-eight countries have had female heads of state (not including the United States), but in 2009 women made up only 18 percent of national parliaments (legislatures). 18

Gender Empowerment Around the World:

Ten Countries Ranked by Gender Empowerment Measure * Ratio of estimate female to male earned income SOURCE: UNDP 2009a. Year Women Could Vote Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company 1919 1913 1906 1902 1918 1917 1946 1947 1920 2006 Income Ratio 0.67 0.77 0.73 0.59 0.65 0.65 0.55 0.53 0.79 0.27 47% 36% 42% 30% 31% 25% 33% 24% 17% 23% 32% 31% 29% 37% 38% 37% 43% 31% 43% 10% 51% 51% 55% 57% 50% 56% 53% 45% 56% 21% % of Seats in Parliament % of Legislators, Senior Officials, & Managers % of Professional & Technical Workers 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Gender Empowerment Around the World 19

Violence against women:

Violence against women Violence against women is institutionalized in varying ways around the world. Dowry disputes in India Sharia law in Islamic countries Foot-binding in China Genital mutilation in many countries Forced prostitution (sex trafficking) Culture of misogyny 20

Rape:

Rape Nearly one-quarter of women say they have been forced into a sexual encounter, but only 3 percent of men acknowledge coercive sex. College campuses are a prime location for sexual violence and attempted sexual violence. Rape Coercion Stalking 21

Explaining gender inequality:

Explaining gender inequality Functionalism Feminist theories Liberal feminism Radical feminism Black feminism 22

Functionalist theory:

Functionalist theory Sees gender differences as good for societal harmony Problems: Assumes gender roles are universal and static Puts the broad harmony over problems caused by gender inequity 23

Feminist theories:

Feminist theories An activist approach that sees inequality as a systemic wrong that must be challenged Today feminist theory is used to explain inequality in many social institutions and concerns aside from those explicitly dealing with gender. Many versions of feminist theory; they do not necessarily agree with each other 24

Chapter 9: Gender Inequality:

Chapter 9: Gender Inequality

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 1. Your friend Meghan overhears you talking about the difference between sex and gender with your classmate Roger. Confused, Meghan chimes in: “Wait a minute! I thought sex and gender were the same thing!” You explain that   a. sex refers to the physical differences in the body, whereas gender concerns the psychological, social, and cultural differences between males and females. b. sex is what couples do to conceive, whereas gender is an attribute of their baby. c. a culture’s understanding of gender determines what types of physical intimacy constitute sex. d. sex concerns the psychological, social, and cultural differences between males and females, whereas gender refers to the physical differences in the body. 26

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 2. What is patriarchy?   a. the name given to societies in which property is passed down by the male lineage b. the name given to societies in which Eastern Orthodoxy is the main religion c. the name given to societies in which women are treated as property d. the name given to male dominance in a society 27 27

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 3. An important economic trend of the past thirty years has been the _____ of the gender gap in earnings.   a. widening b. narrowing c. disappearance d. appearance 28

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 4. According to sociologists, why are women so often the target of sexual violence?   a. Men are socialized to regard women as sexual objects and are socialized into a sense of sexual entitlement. b. Women are physically weaker than men and are unable to resist male advances. c. In an era of rapidly changing gender roles, males are often confused by the signals that women send them regarding their willingness to have sex. d. Men are unable to regulate their behavior when experiencing aroused sexual passion. 29

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 5. What does it mean for men and women to “do gender”?   a. To “do gender” means to follow traditional conceptions of the responsibilities of men and women in everyday life and to reinforce the idea that gender is a natural means for society to differentiate itself. b. To “do gender” means to challenge traditional conceptions of the responsibilities of men and women in everyday life and to attack the idea that gender is a natural means for society to differentiate itself. c. To “do gender” means to take the traditional role of the opposite gender (men acting as women and women as men). This normally happens in special circumstances, such as a fancy-dress party where men come as women and women as men or in single-parent homes when Daddy has to change diapers or Mommy has to repair the sink. d. To “do gender” refers to the process by which children learn about traditional conceptions of gender roles. 30

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 6. Gender typing occurs when   a. men and women are concentrated in different occupations. b. men dominate the economic power in a society. c. men in traditionally female jobs such as teaching find themselves rising to the top of the organizational ladder. d. there is great inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income, and status. 31

Clicker Questions:

Clicker Questions 7. Which of the following statements would be rejected by sociologists who endorse the view that gender is socially constructed?   a. Sex is biologically determined and gender is culturally learned. b. Both sex and gender are socially constructed. c. There is no biological basis for gender differences. d. Gender identities emerge in relation to perceived sex differences in society and in turn help to shape those differences. 32

PowerPoint Presentation:

Art Presentation Slides Chapter 9 Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr Gender Inequality

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Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Many children’s toys may promote gender stereotyping. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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This photo (left), dated November 30, 1952, shows George Jorgensen before his sex change. After he was discharged from the U.S. Army he traveled to Copenhagen, Denmark, where he had a sex change operation. After the operation he changed his name to Christine. Christine Jorgensen (right), returning from a night-club engagement in Cuba in 1953. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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A we’wha (or berdache) of the Zuni people of New Mexico. Berdaches often behaved like persons of the opposite gender. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Figure 9.1 Women’s Participation in the Labor Force in the United States Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Figure 9.2 Women at Work Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Figure 9.3 The Gender Pay Gap Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Factory worker in Chang zhou, China, assembling parts for switch-gears. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Sociologist Christine Williams asserts than men in female-dominated professions, such as this elementary school teacher, are routinely promoted to top administrative positions and face constant pressure to advance. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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U.S. Marine Michael Mink discusses school behavior notes that came home in his sons’ back-packs. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Gender Empowerment Around the World Ten Countries Ranked by Gender Empowerment Measure * Ratio of estimate female to male earned income SOURCE: UNDP 2009a. Year Women Could Vote Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company 1919 1913 1906 1902 1918 1917 1946 1947 1920 2006 Income Ratio 0.67 0.77 0.73 0.59 0.65 0.65 0.55 0.53 0.79 0.27 47% 36% 42% 30% 31% 25% 33% 24% 17% 23% 32% 31% 29% 37% 38% 37% 43% 31% 43% 10% 51% 51% 55% 57% 50% 56% 53% 45% 56% 21% % of Seats in Parliament % of Legislators, Senior Officials, & Managers % of Professional & Technical Workers 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

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Why would a functionalist agree that the division of labor between the homemaking wife and breadwinning husband in this Japanese household is ideal? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Surrounded by minority women at the Houston Civic Center? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

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W.W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 9 by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr

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