logging in or signing up dielectric-transducers ishanka3208 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 347 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: September 09, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Variable Capacitance Transducers The Capacitance of a two plate capacitor is given by A – Overlapping Area x – Gap width k – Dielectric constant Permitivity of vacuum Relative permitivity A change in any one of these parameters may be used for sensing Examples - Transverse displacement, rotation, and fluid level A capacitance bridge can be used to measure the change in the capacitance Other methods include measuring a change in charge Charge – charge amplifier Voltage – high impedance device in parallel Current – low impedance device in series Or inductance capacitance oscillator circuit Slide 2: DC Output vo Capacitance Bridge Rotating Plate A Fixed Plate Rotation Capacitive Rotation Sensor One plate rotates and the other is stationary Common area is proportional to the angle θ The relationship is linear and K is the sensor constant Sensitivity is Slide 3: Moving Plate (e.g., Diaphragm) Position x vo Fixed Plate Capacitive Displacement Sensor One plate is attached to the moving object and the other is kept stationary Capacitance is and sensitivity is This relationship is nonlinear but can be linearized by using an op amp circuit Output vo Supply Voltage vref + − Cref C = K/x + − A + − Op amp Capacitance Bridge Slide 4: k vo Fixed Plate Level h Liquid Displacement Measurement by changing Dielectric Displacement can be measured by attaching the moving object to a solid dielectric element placed in between the plates Liquid level as shown below can be measured as the dielectric medium between the plates changes with the liquid level Capacitance Bridge Slide 5: Displacement Measurement From magnitude From phase Slide 6: Capacitive Angular Velocity Sensor Slide 7: Capacitive Sensor Applications Mechanical loading effects are negligible Variations in dielectric properties due to humidity, temperature, pressure, and impurities can cause errors Capacitance bridge can compensate for these effects Sensitivity – 1pF per mm Slide 8: + AC Excitation vref Compensator Z1 Sensor Z2 Bridge Completion Z3 Z4 Bridge Output vo v Capacitance Bridge Circuit For a balanced circuit Bridge output due to sensor change Slide 9: Piezoelectric Sensors Substances such as BaTiO3 (barium titanate),SiO2 (quartz in crystalline), and lead zirconate titanate can generate an electric charge when subjected to stress (strain) Applications include Pressure and strain measuring devices Touch screens Accelerometers Torque/Force sensors Piezoelectric materials deform when a voltage is applied. Applications include Piezoelectric valves Microactuators and MEMS Slide 10: Output impedance of a piezoelectric sensor is very high It varies with the frequency ~MΩ at 100Hz Sensitivity Charge sensitivity For a surface area A (pressure applied – stress) Voltage sensitivity – change in voltage due to unit increment in pressure per unit thickness (d is the thickness) k is the dielectric constant of the crystal capacitor Slide 11: Piezoelectric Material Sensitivities Slide 12: Piezoelectric Accelerometer Output vo Direction of Sensitivity (Input) Spring Inertia Mass Piezoelectric Element Electrodes Inertia force caused by the acceleration produces a voltage Light weight, high frequency response (1MHz) High output impedance – small voltages ~1mV High spring stiffness – natural frequency or resonant frequency is high (20kHz) Useful frequency range – 5kHz Slide 13: Accelerometer Signal (dB) Frequency (Hz) 5,000 20,000 Useful Range 1 Resonance Frequency response curve of a piezoelectric accelerometer Typical accelerometer sensitivities – 10 pC/g (pico Coulomb per gravity) or 5mV/g Sensitivity depends on the piezoelectric properties and the way the inertia force is applied Large mass would result in a large force and a large output signal but Load the measurand Lower the resonant frequency Slide 14: Charge Amplifier Output vo Cf vo/K + − A + − Charge Amplifier Rf Cc C Piezoelectric Sensor Cable q K Impedance matching Reduce speed of charge leakage You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.