education in india

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Source w By: Wikimedia, Inc

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Education in Republic India

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history overview literacy rate issues initiatives

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history Monastic orders of education under the supervision of a guru was a favored form of education for the nobility in ancient India. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform. With the arrival of the British Raj in India, the modern European education came to India. British Raj was reluctant to introduce mass education system as it was not their interest. Following independence in 1947, Maulana Azad , India's first education minister envisaged strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system. However, given the cultural and linguistic diversity of India, it was only the higher education dealing with science and technology that came under the jurisdiction of the central government. The government also held powers to make national policies for educational development and could regulate selected aspects of education throughout India.

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The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) i s the apex body for curriculum related matters for school education in India. The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. [ In India, the various curriculum bodies governing school education system are: The state government boards, in which the majority of Indian children are enrolled. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board. The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (ICSE) board. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board. International schools affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations. Islamic Madrasahschools , whose boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband . Autonomous schools like Woodstock School, Auroville , Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula . In addition, NUEPA ( National University of Educational Planning and Administration ) and NCTE ( National Council for Teacher Education ) are responsible for the management of the education system and teacher accreditation. overview Cont.

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The Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years (referred to as Elementary Education in India. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.However , both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the Elementary Stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the Country. However, due to shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor level of teacher training. Education has also been made free for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Education Revitalization Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary education system. 85% of the DERP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15 percent was funded by the states.The DERP, which had opened 160000 new schools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 3.5 million children, was also supported by UNICEF and other international programmes . This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% for the last three years in some states.Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme. The current scheme for universalization of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low. overview p rimary education

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According to current estimates, 80% of all schools are government schools making the government the major provider of education. However, because of poor quality of public education, 27% of Indian children are privately educated. According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a fraction of the unit cost of government schools. [ However, others have suggested that private schools fail to provide education to the poorest families, a selective being only a fifth of the schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation. [ In their favour , it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and drama. The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for government schools and more teachers in private schools are female. There is some disgreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to the latest DISE survey, the percentage of untrained teachers ( paratechers ) is 54.91% in private, compared to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schools receive inservice training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition in the school market is intense, yet most schools make profit. Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free. A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools. [ Private schools are often operating illegally. A 2001 study found that it takes 14 different licenses from four different authorities to open a private school in New Delhi and could take years if done legally. [ However, operation of unrecognized schools has been made illegal under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Actwhich has also significantly simplified the process of obtaining recognition. private education overview

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The National Policy on Education (NPE) , 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system . Secondary education covers children 14–18 which covers 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001. However, enrolment figures show that only 31 million of these children were attending schools in 2001–02, which means that two-third of the population remained out of school. A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing. A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education. but which was converted into Inclusive Education at Secondary Stage Another notable special programme , the Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, who are distributed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee's family has been transferred. A multilingual web portal on Primary Education is available with rich multimedia content for children and forums to discuss on the Educational issues. India Development Gateway is a nationwide initiative that seeks to facilitate rural empowerment through provision of responsive information, products and services in local languages. overview secondary education

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india's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 13 institutes which are of national importance. Other institutions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions. The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology. Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes. Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher education system. Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have been globally acclaimed for their standard of undergraduate education in engineering .The IITs enroll about 8000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India. However IITs barely has any contribution in fundamemtal scientific research and innovation. Some Institute of Basic research like Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science(IACS), Indian Institute of Science (IISC), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research(TFIR) has acclaimed for their standard of research in basic science. However, India has failed to produce world class universities like Harvardor Cambridge. overview higher education

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From the first Five Year Plan onwards India's emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower.India's National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament.At the level of the centre the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information Technology are deemed of national importance. The Indian Institutes of Management are also among the nation's premier education facilities. Several Regional Engineering Colleges (REC) have been converted into National Institutes of Technology.The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promote common research, e.g. the Nuclear Science Centre at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. In addition to above institutes, efforts towards the enhancement of technical education are supplemented by a number of recognized Professional Engineering Societies like: the Institution of Engineers (India); the Institution of Chemical Engineering (India); the Institution of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineers (India); the Indian Institute of Metals; the Institution of Industrial Engineers (India); the Institute of Town Planners (India) he Indian Institute of Architects etc., overview technical education

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According to the Census of 2011 , "every person above the age of 7 years who can read and write in any language is said to be literate". According to this criterion, the 2011 survey holds the National Literacy Rate to be around 74% . Government statistics of 2001 also hold that the rate of increase in literacy is more in rural areas than in urban areas. Female literacy was at a national average of 65% whereas the male literacy was 82% . Within the Indian states, Kerala has shown the highest literacy rates of 93% whereas Bihar averaged 63.8% literacy. The 2001 statistics also indicated that the total number of 'absolute non-literates' in the country was 304 million. literacy rate

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One study found out that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of public sector medical workers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absence rates ranged from 15% in Maharashtra to 30% in Bihar. Only 1 in nearly 3000 public school head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence. A study on teachers by Kremer etc. found that 'only about half were teaching, during unannounced visits to a nationally representative sample of government primary schools in India.'. A study of 188 government-run primary schools found that 59% of the schools had no drinking water and 89% had no toilets.2003–04 data by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration revealed that only 3.5% of primary schools in Bihar and Chhattisgarh had toilets for girls. In Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, rates were 12–16%. issues funding and infrastructure

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Modern education in India is often criticized for being based on rote learning rather than problem solving. BusinessWeek criticizes the Indian curriculum, saying it revolves around rote learning and ExpressIndia suggests that students are focused on cramming. issues curriculum issues

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In January 2010, the Government of India decided to withdraw Deemed university status from as many as 44 rations were not being kept in mind by the management of these institutions and that "they were being run as family fiefdoms". The University Grant Commission found 39 fake institutions operating in India. Only 10% of manufacturers in India offer in-service training to their employees, compared with over 90% in China issues

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Following India's independence a number of rules were formulated for the backward Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes of India, and in 1960 a list identifying 405 Scheduled Castes and 225 Scheduled Tribes was published by the central government. An amendment was made to the list in 1975, which identified 841 Scheduled Castes and 510 Scheduled Tribes . The total percentage of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes combined was found to be 22.5 percent with the Scheduled Castes accounting for 17 percent and the Scheduled Tribes accounting for the remaining 7.5 percent. Following the report many Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes increasingly referred to themselves as Dalit , a Marathi language terminology used by B. R. Ambedkar which literally means "oppressed". initiatives

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The government objective for the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), started in 2001, is to provide education to children between 6–14 years by 2010. The programme focuses specially on girls and children with challenged social or financial backgrounds.The SSA also aims to provide practical infrastructure and relevant source material in form of free textbooks to children in remote areas. The SSA also aims at widening computer education in rural areas.SSA is currently working with Agastya International Foundation – an educational NGO – to augment its efforts in making science curriculum current and exciting. However, some objectives of the SSA, e.g. enrollment of all children under the scheme in schools by 2005 remain unfulfilled.Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education are components of the SSA initiatives

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