Environmental DNA and Bioremediation

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Environmental DNA and Bioremediation:

Environmental DNA and Bioremediation

DNA ( Deoxyribonucleic acid ): :

DNA ( Deoxyribonucleic acid ): DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in organisms that contains the biological instructions for building and maintaining them. The chemical structure of DNA is the same for all organisms, but differences exist in the order of the DNA building blocks, known as base pairs.

Environmental DNA:

Environmental DNA Environmental DNA ( eDNA ) is nuclear or mitochondrial DNA that is released from an organism into the environment.. eDNA can be detected in cellular or extracellular dissolved form.This DNA dissolves in the water and becomes diluted as it spreads over a larger area. This external DNA is called environmental DNA ( eDNA ).

Sources::

Sources: Source of eDNA includes secreted feces, mucous and gamates , shed skin and hair, and carcasses

Advantages of eDNA approach: :

Advantages of eDNA approach : Higher chance of detecting a species

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Cost efficient Accurate Less risk of introducing alien species and spreading disease

Future of eDNA: :

Future of eDNA : eDNA could have a huge impact on studies of aquatic system. Efficient multispecies detection & monitoring . Detection and monitoring of elusive aquatic species. Efficient early detection of invasive species.

Bioremediation: :

Bioremediation: Bioremediation is the transformation or degradation of the contaminants into non hazardous or less hazardous chemical. Bacteria are generally used for bioremediation , but fungi algae and plants have also been used.

Classification of bioremediation: :

Classification of bioremediation: Biotransformation- the alteration of contaminants molecules into less or non hazardous molecules. Biodegradation- the breakdown of organic substances in smaller organic or inorganic molecules. Mineralisation - is the complete biodegradation of organic material into inorganic constituents such as CO2 or H2O.

Critical factors :

Critical factors These factors are: Magnitude, toxicity and mobility of contaminants. Proximity of the human and environmental receptors. Degradability of contaminants. Planned site use. Ability of proper monitor.

Advantages::

Advantages: Contaminants are destroyed, not transferred to different environmental media.

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Lower cost. Contaminants usually converted to innocuous products. Relative ease of implementation.

Example:

Example microorganisms capable to convert hydrocarbons into non-harmful biomass exist in soil.

Disadvantages::

Disadvantages: Amendments introduced into the environment to enhance bioremediation may cause other contamination problems. May not reduce concentration of contaminants to required level. May require more extensive monitoring. Lack of control. Dynamic process,difficult to predict future effectivenes

Conclusion::

Conclusion: Environmental DNA is useful in bioremediation as it helps us to detect the species through DNA sampling and testing. It is cost efficient and accurate as it takes less time and no more taxonomic errors occur. But it needs control and proper monitoring.

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