Corruption in Pakistan

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Corruption Equation- Pakistan

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Causes of Corruption in Pakistan: Country Specific Equation:

SUBMITTED TO Prof. Dr. Mussawar Hussain Bukhari SUBMITTED BY Iqra Butt Roll no 01 Causes of Corruption in Pakistan: Country Specific Equation

Abstract:

Corruption is the universal evil which lessens the socioeconomic development of a country, lowers the quality of life of individuals and violates human rights. Pakistan being a developing country is facing this problem since the time of independence which has slowed down the process of democratization in the country and is leading towards increased extortions to social welfare as corruption escalates inequality in the society. So, combating corruption become the key concern of Pakistan in recent years PURPOSE : Causes and consequences of corruption are country specific so equation of corruption varies from one country to another. The theme of this article is to identify corruption equation in context of Pakistan. METHODOLOGY : It is a quantitative and qualitative study. Reports, statistical data, research articles are used to analyse the equation RESULTS : It is found that the most prevalent factors that affect and increase corruption in the country are lack of accountability, low income, weak institutions and wide discretionary powers Abstract

Introduction:

The most comprehensive definition of corruption approved by Transparency International, Asian Development Bank and World Bank is “misuse of public office for private profit or political gain ” Corruption is an outcome and a reflection of a country’s legal, economic, cultural and political institutions General equation of corruption proposed by Klitgaard (1998) is C= f (R, D, A, L) Introduction

Core Idea:

Several studies indicated that causes and consequences of corruption are country specific so equation of corruption varies from one country to another. The theme of this article is to identify corruption equation in context of Pakistan. Ho : C= f (R, D, A, L) H1 : C≠ f (R, D, A, L ) Ho : C= R+ D- A H2: C≠ R+ D- A Core Idea

Conceptual framework:

Conceptual framework

Methodology:

It is a quantitative and qualitative research. Data has been collected through research articles, statistical data reports provided by Transparency International Pakistan and Journals . Methodology

Literature review:

General overview of Corruption in Pakistan Khan (2001) also mentioned in his research that bureaucratic corruption increases due to less paid and less qualified individuals. Dr. Muhammad Tariq Khan, Dr. Naseer Ahmed Khan, Sheraz Ahmed, & Khalid Mehmood (2012) favoured the idea that public servants are less qualified to fulfil the duties assigned. Literature review

Literature review:

1% increase in the corruption level reduces the growth rate by about 0.72 %. 53% overall adverse effect on the relationship between corruption and economic growth when the state is not politically stable Literature review

Self Finding:

I have categorized these models in to two types; the first category is the general model which covers all aspects of corruption in the Pakistani society, second category is specific which particularly narrates the causes of political and bureaucratic corruption. Self Finding

General:

General

Specific:

Specific

Corruption equation:

C= f (D, 2 I’s, A) C = D-A-I-I Corruption equation

conclusion:

It is found that the most prevalent factors that affect and escalate corruption in Pakistan are lack of accountability, low income, weak institutions and wide discretionary powers, given that the institutional efficiency and political instability serves as the catalyst to increase the corruption in the society. conclusion

Thank you:

Thank you