Category: Education

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CONTINUING EDUCATION “Continuing education is all the learning activities that occur after an individual has completed his basic education”. – COOPER . “ Continuing education in nursing consists of systematic learning experiences designed to enlarge the knowledge & skills of nurses. “


NEED IN NURSING To ensure safe & effective nursing care. To meet the needs of population. To update the knowledge of nurses & prepare them for specialization. For career advancement. Acquire changing professional roles. To forsee social changes. Acquire specialized skills of personnel & meet technological adjuncts. Bridging the shortage of specialized nurses & care. To make clinical specialists for direct patient care & for teaching & consultative roles. For research aptitudes. To prepare nurses to see continuing education as personal, professional & university responsibility.


FUNCTIONS To meet the health needs & public expectations. To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse. Recruitment function. Recognize gaps in their knowledge. To test ability to do final academic study. To improve the communication between the participants, faculty, community & health sector. To shape university educational policies & practices. To ensure the quality of education. To maintain academic standards. To meet educational requirements.




PHILOSOPHY Philosophy - Thought of relating to basic beliefs based on values & social change. Provides a direction for action. Nurses philosophy of life, nursing & education, belief, etc. will influence the philosophy of continuing education. Continuing nursing education is concerned with the development of the nurse as a person, a practitioner & a citizen to solve the problems of communication, continuity, coordination in providing patient care.


ELEMENTS The philosophies of continuing nursing education recognizes:-


LEARNER A person, a nurse or a citizen meant for lifelong learning . To involve in nursing & non-nursing courses. Plays different roles at every aspect of life, e.g. Adult, family member, learner, friend Aims at self-directed learning.


TEACHER/NURSE EDUCATOR Accepts the concept of lifelong learning. Acts as role model. Aware of sources of information about CNE, e.g. Self-directed individual study, in-service programmes, formal basic courses, post-graduate academic studies. Creative teaching. Builds up confidence in his/her students. Plays multiple roles, e.g. Guide, counsellor, motivator, organizer, evaluator, administrative role, public relations role.


PRE-REQUISITES FOR THE TEACHER OR NURSE EDUCATOR EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION. Master’s degree in nursing specialization. Credentials with more publications. Writing & organizing skills. A continuing learner. Clinical expertise. Interest & enthusiasm in teaching subject. Skill in working with adult learners. Teaching skills & method of teaching. Broad base knowledge.

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COMPETENCIES. Concern for people. Flexibility. Sensitivity to group response. Wiling to travel. Resourcefulness. Determination. Self confidence. Good sense of humour. Broader outlook. Interest in self-development & in others development.

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THE FACULTY ADMINISTRATOR Possess a high degree of administrative skill. Teaching as a part of responsibility. Assess & use various abilities of different faculty members. Encourages supplemental education & creativity. Foster expansion of learner’s talent promoting personal & professional development. Make the faculty members to support & abide the institutional policies by familiarizing them. Recognizes the person’s contribution.

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MOTIVATION OF LEARNER To arouse new areas of interest among the learner & involve them in planning, designing the learning activities. Internal motivation i.e. the personal needs desire to learn rather than for certificates, grades, credits, etc. Expand learning opportunity for nurses. Difficulties encountered in the process must be viewed as challenges, not as obstacles.

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ORGANIZED LEARNING EXPERIENCES Learners are involved more directly in programme planning & in the conduct of courses & deciding which educational experiences & the activities are most suitable to them. THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY Quality of life & needs of society influences the learning needs of the nurses. The critical issues facing society can be met by a concerned well informed citizen, who are willing to devote their thought , time and energy to their solution. Citizens are vitally concerned and actively involved in seeking solutions to the problems faced by that society.

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UNIVERSALISATION Continuing Nursing Education should be universally accepted. THE LEISURE Use leisure time constructively, participate in more educational activities. LIBERAL EDUCATION Heavy demand on all health professional requires practitioners with the insight, understand & attitudes which can be fufiled through liberal education.


PRINCIPLES Provision for school & nursing faculty involvement in planning & teaching the continuing nursing education courses tends to maintain high educational standards for the programmes. An adequate staff is essential. Responsibilities of the director of CNE : Determination of learning needs of the nurse population. Development & implementation of the programme. Sufficient, talented staff services. An advisory committee.


CONDUCTING A CNE PLANNING- An ongoing process: A careful & detailed planning is required. Broad planning by institution & agencies. Specific planning by the individuals for their own continuing education. Planning Process: WHAT? WHY? HOW? WHERE? WHEN? WHO?

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ESTABLISHING GOALS & OBJECTIVES Planning significant & realistic goals to stimulate & direct action. An objective is specific desired end or accomplishment desired to sought. To assist nurse identifying & meeting current learning needs. To influence societal changes having implications for nursing. To assess the health needs of the nurses, hospitals & community. Collaborate with other health disciplines. To disseminate new information from varied channels.

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DETERMINE NEEDS & PRIORITIES Assessment of needs will be bone by Survey. Mailed questionnaires. Interview. Formal & informal discussions. Check list. After assessing the needs, prioritization is to be done.

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PLAN APPROPRIATE BUDGET The fee is set on the basis of the cost involved & the expected enrolment. Separate budget is required for each specific activity & each individual offering is expected to be self-supporting. WRITING PROPASAL Writing with carefulness, clear, concise familiar terms with enough detail. Proposal format.

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ORGANISATION: Programming of a professional course in nursing is joint responsibility of the director of continuing nursing education & the Dean of school of nursing. Formal channels of communication make the optimal use of the nursing faculty to explore the needs of continuing nursing education. Faculty involvement & provision of advisory committee is highly desirable.

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EVALUATION: To assess the effectiveness of the programme. To what extent pre-set goals have been achieved. To assess the applicability of training in the field. For quality control or qualitative improvement. Procedure for evaluation: Pre-test & post-test. Attitude tests. Observation of skills. Questionnaire. Audio or video tapes.

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NATIONAL POLICY ON CONTINUING EDUCATION (NPE) National Literacy Mission (1988): To impart functional literacy to non-literates of 15-35 yrs of age group. Program of action on NPE is given by the Ministry of Human Resource Development; Government of India . According to NPE, Adult Education can be successfully implemented by involving continuing education. The Janshikshan Sansthan is established for clusters of villages with the facilities of library, reading rooms, charcha mandal, community TV set & radio to encourage sub serving the objectives of education. However, continuing education goes beyond post literacy therefore still it is one of the important objectives to be achieved.

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IN-SERVICE EDUCATION In-service education is a planned instructional or training program provided by an employing agency in employment setting and is designed to increase competence in a specific area. COMPONENTS : - Orientation skill training programme. Continuing education programme. Leadership training. Management skills development. Staff development programme.


RESEARCH ARTICLES The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing (JCEN). Continuing Education & self-assessment of knowledge of nurse leaders :- Andreja Kvas , M.Sc , B.Sc , RN. (DOI:- June 10, 2013; 10.3928/00220124).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Neeraja K.P, Textbook of Nursing Education (2003): New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. Abbatt FB, MEJIA A, Continuing Education of Health Workers, A Workshop Manual, (Geneva) World Health Organization. Satija BR, Trends in Education(2003), New Delhi, Anmol Publishers.

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