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England & Scotland:

England & Scotland

Country and People:

Country and People Who are the British? One Country one people? Take for instance sport (see diagram) Britain is dived into nations which have their own individual identity and sense of nationhood.

The English :

The English The word England comes from the Germanic Engla land meaning land of the Angles. Where as the names Wales ,Ireland and Scotland originate from Brythonic and Celtic languages. It’s flag is St George’s flag a red cross on a white Background National day is 23rd of April National plant –the rose Many groups have formed England the Angles ,Jutes, Britons, Normans etc the English originated from mixed stock. England is still a country which contains many races and often this has its problems. There are parties like the National Front who want to get rid of all foreign nationals however this group is not large. England has had many great Kings and Queens which have formed the nation Henry the Eighth ,Elizabeth 1 ,Queen Victoria to name a few . A lot of English history has been bloody and violent. This has been humorously put into children's books and called Horrible Histories much to children's fascination

General information:

General information England is a beautiful country made up of rolling hills and large areas of flat farming land there are mountains and hills however they only make up a minority of the English landscape. For the Romans it was the only nation of the four which was worth keeping the others did not have enough resources and they were also too much trouble. England is a land of culture and has a long history of distinguished writers, poets, painters Some of the greatest being William Shakespeare, Percy Shelly, George Orwell, Lord Byron, John Constable, William Turner, Lucien Freud, Francis Bacon, Damien Hurst.

England in not Britain:

England in not Britain It is a common mistake to use England when Britain should be used however you can understand why non natives make this error. The Dominant culture is definitely that of England 50.8 million of the 60.6 million in Britain are English. English is the main language of the four nations The system of government originates from England Many aspects of everyday life are organised according to English custom and practice. But the political unification of Britain was not achieved by a mutual agreement. Rather because England asserted her economic and military power over the other nations which still causes some resentment among the people of those nations. This English dominance can be seen in institutions like the Bank of England (not Bank of Britain) which controls the supply of money. Many English don’t bother to write British as nationality but English instead

Land of Festivals:

Land of Festivals England has many festivals and in the summer you could spend every week going to one or the other. The Biggest festivals are music ones the most popular being Glastonbury then Reading & Leeds Rock festival and many others. There are also a host of other festivals held in England such as the London film festival, Notting Hill Carnival( last weekend in a August) etc. There are also Beer festivals which are really popular like the Olympia Beer festival held in early August.


Scotland It’s flag is St Andrew’s flag a white saltire on a blue Background National day is the 30th of November National plant –the thistle Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and is the second largest city ,Glasgow being the largest. Edinburgh was the hub of Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century which saw Scotland become on of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe The Scots are known to have a great sense of humour and give a lot of importance to formal education. Scotland has 790 Islands of which 130 are inhabited The official language is English but 1% of the population speak Gaelic

What did you say?:

What did you say? Scottish Galeic is a Celtic language native to Scotland, a member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic language languages. Scottish Gaelic is like Modern Irish. The Galeic language was introduced to Scotland by settlers from Ireland, probably in the 4th century. The word Scot ,and all such derivations (Scotland, Scottish, etc) derives from Scoti. The Latin name for a people that travelled to Scotland from Ireland, and it is possible that this tribe brought Gaelic speech to Scotland. Some expressios are Hello, Halo,Ciamar a tha thu/ How are you ? Ciamar a tha thu? Where are you from co as a tha thu? Good morning Madainn mhath There is also Scots which is a dialect of English and has a lot of very descriptive words. Wee Beastie-common term for any annoying insect. Messages-every day food shopping you do locally Baltic-miserable cold day Minging (about a person), Bogging (about a place)- Gross, disgusting, smelly

Scottish Culture:

Scottish Culture Scottish literature is rich and varied having been written in English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French and Latin. The world famous poet Robert Burns wrote in Scots. Later though Arthur Conan Doyle and Sir Walter Scott wrote in English with huge commercial success .Also J.M Barrie at the end of the 19th century introduced the ‘Kailyard School’ which brought elements of fantasy and folklore into fashion. This was seen as a major setback for Scottish literature.

The Tartan Kilt:

The Tartan Kilt Historical references show that the tartan kilt of Scotland dates back to the 16th century .What was once a way of identifying family clan’s. The kilt became a more pronounced source of Scottish Pride in the 19th century and all of the modern kilt fashions and etiquette stem from this evolution. What is ironic is that the walking kilt worn knee length was invented by an English gentleman in the 1700s who went to Scotland to open a factory however he got tired of his Scottish workers showing up in a long tunic with a belt (they couldn’t afford trousers) and rather than raise wages so they could buy trousers he invented the kilt with a lot of fabric which they could afford. The kilt did not become a symbol of clan pride until the English banned the kilt in Scotland. The Kilt plays an important part in the Highland gatherings and the games. So what is worn under the kilt?


Festivals What festivals are there in Scotland ? The biggest cultural one is the Edinburgh festival and its off shoots the fringe,film etc The biggest music festival is T in the Park held annually since 1994 in a disused airfield in Balado in Perthshire. The New Years celebrations in Edinburgh also now have festivals connected to them

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