Wind Turbines

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Wind Turbines :

Wind Turbines A Journey into an Understanding of the Technology used to Harness the power of Wind Your hosts: Sir James Kelley III and Dr. David N Rahni

Policy Perspective:

Policy Perspective On October 20 th , 1956 Israeli forces swept into Egypt and overcame local opposition as they raced for the Suez Canal British and French forces intervened as part of a “peace initiative” allowed the European powers to occupy and control the Suez Canal again. The conflict cost over 1,000 Egyptians their lives

Denmark:

Denmark In 2001, the Danish Wind industry produced 4.3 Terawatt Hours (TWh) of electricity 1 TWh (Terawatt Hour) = 1 trillion Watt Hours (1,000,000,000,000) 1 million barrels of oil produce can produce 73 Gigawatt Hours (GWh) of electricity 1 GHw = 1 billion Watt Hours (1,000,000,000) Denmark used wind energy to create the equivalent of 59,000,000 barrels of oil in 2001

Introduction to Wind:

Introduction to Wind Wind is caused by the energy radiated to the Earth by the Sun Nuclear reactions take place inside the sun’s core, where the temperature is 1 x 10 7 K This produces 4 x 10 26 joules of electromagnetic radiation every second that is radiated into space Some of it reaches the earth: strikes the equator directly (giving it the most radiation) diffuses along the Northern and Southern Hemisphere the poles receive the lowest amount of radiation

Creation of Seasons:

Creation of Seasons

Wind con’t:

Wind con’t The radiation from the sun heats the Earth's surface Heating process creates temperature differences between the: Land,Water, Air due to their different physical properties I.e. density A ffects their respective abilities to absorb heat

Process of Wind Creation :

Process of Wind Creation Wind “current of air (air moving from an A of high P to an A of low P hot air rises, it expands, becomes less dense, and is then replaced by denser, cooler air Heated air rises from equator moves north and south in the upper levels of the atmosphere circulates above cooler air At roughly 30° latitude Coriolis Effect stops air. high pressure area The Coriolis Effect “ the tendency for any moving body on or above the earth's surface to drift sideways from its course because of the earth's rotation Northern Hemisphere deflection right Southern Hemisphere it is to the left

Coriolis Effect: 3 Cell Effect:

Coriolis Effect: 3 Cell Effect

Harnessing the Wind:

Harnessing the Wind

Wind Turbines:

Wind Turbines “rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by causing a bladed rotor to rotate” opposite of a fan turbine blades spin from the wind and make energy, instead of using energy to make wind Wind rotates the turbine blades spins a shaft connected to a generator The spinning of the shaft in the generator makes electricity

Construction: Wind Sheer :

Construction: Wind Sheer Wind turbines, like windmills, are mounted on a tower to capture the most wind energy wind speed varies by height wind current 100m above the ground dropped in speed by 10% when its height declined to 50m property is known as wind sheer wind speed increases in speed with height, due to friction at the Earth’s surface The Hub heights of modern wind turbines, which produce 600 to 1,500 kW of electricity, are usually 40 to 80 meters above ground

Internal Parts: The “Hub”:

Internal Parts: The “Hub”

Turbines: Two Types:

Turbines : Two Types Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Two Types:

Two Types Vertical Axis Advantages Can place generator on ground You don’t need a yaw mechanism for wind angle Disadvantages Lower wind speeds at ground level Less efficiency Requires a “push” Horizontal Advantages Higher wind speeds Great efficiency Disadvantages Angle of turbine is relevant Difficult access to generator for repairs

Energy: Kinetic to Electric:

Energy: Kinetic to Electric Wind has kinetic energy: Energy of motion KE = ½ M * U 2 The Mass (M) of Air per second is volume (V) multiplied by its density (D) M = VD density of air = 1.2929 kilograms/m The mass of air per second (M) traveling though a hoop is the area of the hoop (A) multiplied by speed of the wind per second (u) multiplied the density of air (D) M = AuD area of the hoop (A) is radius (r) squared A = П r 2

Catching the Wind!:

Catching the Wind! Turbines catch the wind's energy with their propeller-like blades Usually, two or three blades are mounted on a shaft to form a rotor The wind turbine blade acts an airplane wing When the wind blows a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade Air pressure = force exerted on an object by the weight of particles in air measured in: Inches of Mercury (“ Hg),A Amospheres (Atm) Millibars (mb) 1013.25 mb = 29.92 “ Hg = 1.0 atm. [2] At standard or normal atmospheric pressure, and at 15° C, air usually weighs about 1.225 kilograms per cubic meter [

Catching the Wind! Con’t:

Catching the Wind! Con’t When air pressure is low in one locality, such as the downwind side of a wind turbine blade, air from another area will rush in to equal out the air pressure The low-pressure air pocket created by the wind turbine blade then pulls the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn This process is referred to as lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller causes the spinning of the turbine’s shaft. When shaft spins KE of movement is converted by generator into usable electricity

KE to Usable Energy:

KE to Usable Energy

Bernoulli’s Principle:

Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle Energy Kinetic + Energy Pressure = Energy Pressure + Energy Kinetic Example: If Energy Kinetic 1 = (5), and Energy Pressure 1 = (11) and Energy Pressure 2 drops to (1) then Kinetic Energy 2 Increases to (15)

Setup Types:

Setup Types stand-alone not connected to a power grid power created is directly channeled into powered site utility power grid Stores energy connection must be available Combined w/ a photovoltaic (solar cell) system has solar cells mounted on it. Solar cells - thin wafers of silicon which, when exposed to sunlight, produce…electric current

Efficiency:

Efficiency large number of wind turbines are usually built close together to form what is referred to as a wind plant The world’s largest wind plant located off the coast of Oregon has 450 wind turbines generates 300 MWh of energy meets the needs of 70,000 homes This practice utilizes an area suited for wind energy by deploying multiple units

Limitations:

Limitations limit to the amount of energy that can be harnessed by an individual wind turbine The more kinetic energy that a wind turbine pulls out of the wind, the more the wind will be slowed down as it leaves If a designer tried to extract all the energy from the wind air would move away with the speed zero air prevented from entering the rotor of the turbine If the designer did the exact opposite and allowed the wind to pass through the wind turbine without being hindered at all, again, energy will not be cultivated, since the rotor blades would not be spun, the shaft wouldn’t spin kinetic energy would not be converted into electricity

Betz Law :

Betz Law designer of a wind turbine must find an ideal balance between these two extremes Fortunately for wind energy advocates and enthusiasts there is a simple answer to this dilemma Under Betz Law an ideal wind turbine would slow down the wind by 2/3 of its original speed (the capture of 59.6% of the wind’s speed).

Site Limitations:

Site Limitations The direction that wind travels in angel of the turbine’s rotors are important limitations and considerations Wind at a site is being slowed down by each turbine limit to the amount of individual units a site can support NIMBY Birds

The End:

The End The Nomads of Iran

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