ASSIGNMENT : ASSIGNMENT HISTORY&HERITAGE
Roll no:26 Mahrukh Saleem
roll no :26 Assignment
History & Heritage Geography : Geography Greece is a peninsula about the size of Louisiana in the Mediterranean Sea.
It’s very close to Egypt, the Persian empire (includes Turkey) and Rome.
Greece is mountainous
Greek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverse
As a result, they fought each other a lot. History of Greece : History of Greece Slide 4: According to archeological findings we know that vast areas of Greece have been inhabited since the Paleolithic era ,2 millions years back.
During the Bronze age three separated civilizations flourished in Greece: the Cycladic, the Minoan and the Mycenaean civilization. All these ancient civilizations were developed in areas near the sea. The small marble Cycladic statues are the most impressive famous findings of this period The prince from the Knossos palace in Crete The third important civilization, which is called Mycenaean, flourished in the Greek mainland and particularly in the peninsula of Peloponnese. The major center is Mycenae The Minoan civilization was developed in Crete,an island of strategic importance in the sea route towards the ancient countries of Middle East. Slide 5: King Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece
with the exception of Sparta Alexander the Great expanded the empire and
spread Greek civilization throughout its
territories HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION HELLENIC AGE Development of Greek civilization within Greece HELLENISTIC AGE Spread of Greek civilization to other parts of the
world Political: Athens was the first democracy. : Political: Athens was the first democracy. Democracy: type of government
where people vote.
Well, actually, Athens was a
direct democracy where people
vote on everything.
Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy. In the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in. Political terms : Political terms All of Greece wasn’t a democracy.
Most of Greece was a monarchy a type of government ruled by a king or queen.
At right is Pericles, a good king of Athens. Sparta & Athens : Sparta & Athens Spartan society was obsessed with war.
Boys were sent to military school at a young age.
Boys who are born deformed are left to die on mountainsides Athenians were tough but were encouraged to engage in activities like art, philosophy, music. Slide 9: SCIENCE PYTHAGORAS- principles of Geometry
- “Pythagorean Theorem” ARCHIMEDES- circumference of a circle EUCLID- “Father of Geometry” ARISTARCHUS- earth revolves around the sun
while rotating on its own axis ERASTHOSTHENES- almost exact estimate of
the circumference of the
- drew the latitudes and
longitude lines in the map
of the world Slide 10: ARCHITECTURE PARTHENON- Athenian temple for the goddess
Athena amphitheaters, stadiums, markets and public
baths Slide 11: GREEK DRAMA part of a feast in honor of the god Dionysus TRAGEDY- focused on the problems of life COMEDY- focused on politics and events in a
funny manner ARISTOPHANES- great Comic dramatist Slide 12: PAINTING POLYGNOTUS- first great Greek
APPELLES- painter in Alexander the Great’s
court POETRY HOMER- Iliad and Odyssey
PINDAR- lyric poet
SAPPHO- also known as the “Tenth Muse” Slide 13: SCULPTURE PHIDIAS- greatest sculpture of Greece
- made the statue of Athena and
decorations at Parthenon
- statue of Zeus in Olympia
PRAXITELES- statue of Hermes
MYRON- made the Discobulus (Discus Thrower)
CHARES- made the Colossus of Rhodes (one of
the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
SCOPAS- made the tomb for King Mausolus of
Halicarnassus (originated the present
term “mausoleum”) Slide 14: MEDICINE HIPPOCRATES- established a school for the
study of medicine
- every disease has a natural
HEROPHILUS- “Father of Anatomy”
ERASISTRATUS- “Father of Physiology” ALPHABET Greeks used the alphabet of the Phoenicians and
became the basis for written and spoken
languages of Europeans Slide 15: HISTORY HERODOTUS- “Father of History”
- The History of the Persian Wars
THUCYDIDES- more scientific historian
- History of the Peloponnesian
War Slide 16: PHILOSOPHY SOCRATES- “ the unexamined life is not worth
- developed the DIALECTIC /
question-answer method of
PLATO- Republic- described the ideal state
- “only philosopher could become
intelligent and great leaders”
ARISTOTLE- Politics- examined various forms
- one should accept an theory if
this conforms to observable data. Greek Inventions : Greek Inventions The Greeks invented dice
The Greeks were the original Olympiads.
Their scientists studied the best way to perform sports
The Greeks invented the crane This is a catapult, a a a a Greek invention.
It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings
This is a phalanx.
Soldiers get in a tight box. They each have a large shield and a 9 foot long spear. ZEUSRoman name Jupiter : RELIGION ZEUS- ruler of all the gods
HERA- wife of Zeus; marriage, women and childbirth
PHOEBUS / APOLLO- sun, light, music, prophecy & medicine
Dionysus : god of wine.
HERMES- commerce and messenger of the gods
HEPHAESTUS- fire & blacksmith of the gods
APRODITE- beauty and love
ARTEMIS- moon and hunt
DEMETER- agriculture & fertility polytheistic- believed in many gods and
their gods posses supernatural powers but
subject to human flaws and emotions ZEUSRoman name Jupiter HeraRoman name Juno ARESRoman name Mars HEPHAESTUSRoman name Vulcan ARTEMISRoman name Diana DIONYSUSRoman name Bacchus HERMESRoman name Mercury POSEIDON Roman name Neptune APOLLORoman name Apollo ATHENARoman name Minerva DEMETERRoman name Cerus HADESRoman name Pluto