greek civilization

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ASSIGNMENT HISTORY&HERITAGE Mahrukh Saleem Roll no:26 Mahrukh Saleem roll no :26 Assignment History & Heritage

Geography : 

Geography Greece is a peninsula about the size of Louisiana in the Mediterranean Sea. It’s very close to Egypt, the Persian empire (includes Turkey) and Rome. Greece is mountainous Greek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverse As a result, they fought each other a lot.

History of Greece : 

History of Greece

Slide 4: 

According to archeological findings we know that vast areas of Greece have been inhabited since the Paleolithic era ,2 millions years back. During the Bronze age three separated civilizations flourished in Greece: the Cycladic, the Minoan and the Mycenaean civilization. All these ancient civilizations were developed in areas near the sea. The small marble Cycladic statues are the most impressive famous findings of this period The prince from the Knossos palace in Crete The third important civilization, which is called Mycenaean, flourished in the Greek mainland and particularly in the peninsula of Peloponnese. The major center is Mycenae The Minoan civilization was developed in Crete,an island of strategic importance in the sea route towards the ancient countries of Middle East.

Slide 5: 

King Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece with the exception of Sparta Alexander the Great expanded the empire and spread Greek civilization throughout its territories HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION HELLENIC AGE Development of Greek civilization within Greece HELLENISTIC AGE Spread of Greek civilization to other parts of the world

Political: Athens was the first democracy. : 

Political: Athens was the first democracy. Democracy: type of government where people vote. Well, actually, Athens was a direct democracy where people vote on everything. Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy. In the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

Political terms : 

Political terms All of Greece wasn’t a democracy. Most of Greece was a monarchy a type of government ruled by a king or queen. At right is Pericles, a good king of Athens.

Sparta & Athens : 

Sparta & Athens Spartan society was obsessed with war. Boys were sent to military school at a young age. Boys who are born deformed are left to die on mountainsides Athenians were tough but were encouraged to engage in activities like art, philosophy, music.

Slide 9: 

SCIENCE PYTHAGORAS- principles of Geometry - “Pythagorean Theorem” ARCHIMEDES- circumference of a circle EUCLID- “Father of Geometry” ARISTARCHUS- earth revolves around the sun while rotating on its own axis ERASTHOSTHENES- almost exact estimate of the circumference of the world - drew the latitudes and longitude lines in the map of the world

Slide 10: 

ARCHITECTURE PARTHENON- Athenian temple for the goddess Athena amphitheaters, stadiums, markets and public baths

Slide 11: 

GREEK DRAMA part of a feast in honor of the god Dionysus TRAGEDY- focused on the problems of life COMEDY- focused on politics and events in a funny manner ARISTOPHANES- great Comic dramatist

Slide 12: 

PAINTING POLYGNOTUS- first great Greek painter APOLLODORUS APPELLES- painter in Alexander the Great’s court POETRY HOMER- Iliad and Odyssey PINDAR- lyric poet SAPPHO- also known as the “Tenth Muse”

Slide 13: 

SCULPTURE PHIDIAS- greatest sculpture of Greece - made the statue of Athena and decorations at Parthenon - statue of Zeus in Olympia PRAXITELES- statue of Hermes MYRON- made the Discobulus (Discus Thrower) CHARES- made the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) SCOPAS- made the tomb for King Mausolus of Halicarnassus (originated the present term “mausoleum”)

Slide 14: 

MEDICINE HIPPOCRATES- established a school for the study of medicine - every disease has a natural cause HEROPHILUS- “Father of Anatomy” ERASISTRATUS- “Father of Physiology” ALPHABET Greeks used the alphabet of the Phoenicians and added vowels became the basis for written and spoken languages of Europeans

Slide 15: 

HISTORY HERODOTUS- “Father of History” - The History of the Persian Wars THUCYDIDES- more scientific historian - History of the Peloponnesian War

Slide 16: 

PHILOSOPHY SOCRATES- “ the unexamined life is not worth living” - developed the DIALECTIC / SOCRATIC METHOD- question-answer method of thinking PLATO- Republic- described the ideal state - “only philosopher could become intelligent and great leaders” ARISTOTLE- Politics- examined various forms of government - one should accept an theory if this conforms to observable data.

Greek Inventions : 

Greek Inventions The Greeks invented dice The Greeks were the original Olympiads. Their scientists studied the best way to perform sports The Greeks invented the crane This is a catapult, a a a a Greek invention. It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings This is a phalanx. Soldiers get in a tight box. They each have a large shield and a 9 foot long spear.

ZEUSRoman name Jupiter : 

RELIGION ZEUS- ruler of all the gods HERA- wife of Zeus; marriage, women and childbirth PHOEBUS / APOLLO- sun, light, music, prophecy & medicine POSEIDON- sea Dionysus : god of wine. HERMES- commerce and messenger of the gods HEPHAESTUS- fire & blacksmith of the gods ARES- war ATHENA- wisdom APRODITE- beauty and love ARTEMIS- moon and hunt DEMETER- agriculture & fertility polytheistic- believed in many gods and goddesses their gods posses supernatural powers but subject to human flaws and emotions ZEUSRoman name Jupiter HeraRoman name Juno ARESRoman name Mars HEPHAESTUSRoman name Vulcan ARTEMISRoman name Diana DIONYSUSRoman name Bacchus HERMESRoman name Mercury POSEIDON Roman name Neptune APOLLORoman name Apollo ATHENARoman name Minerva DEMETERRoman name Cerus HADESRoman name Pluto

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