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History Ecology Technology Biology Institutional networks Interpersonal communication Types of cultural communication : Types of cultural communication Cross cultural International Intracultural Intercultural Cross Cultural Communication : Cross Cultural Communication Cross cultural communication involves a comparison of interactions among people from the same culture to those from another culture Intracultural Communication : Intracultural Communication Communication between culturally similar individuals International Communication : International Communication This refers to the interactions among people from different nations not necessarily from different cultures. What is intercultural communication? : What is intercultural communication? A symbolic process in which people from different cultures create shared meaning. Occurs when large and important cultural differences create dissimilar interpretations and expectations about how to communicate competently Components of Intercultural Communication : Components of Intercultural Communication Context Appropriateness and effectiveness Knowledge, motivation, and action Context : Context Intercultural competence is contextual. Competence is not independent of the relationships and situations within which communication occurs. Competence is not an individual attribute; rather it is a characteristic of the association between individuals. Competence is situationally determined Appropriateness and effectiveness : Appropriateness and effectiveness Appropriate- those behaviors that are regarded as proper and suitable given the expectations generated by a given culture, the constraints of the specific situation, and the nature of the relationship between the interactants. Effective- those behaviors that lead to the achievement of desired outcomes. Knowledge : Knowledge The cognitive information you need to have about the people, the context, and the norms of appropriateness that operate in a specific culture. Two types: Culture-general- provides insights into the intercultural communication process abstractly, regardless of culture Culture-specific- knowledge used to understand a particular culture Motivations : Motivations The overall set of emotional associations that people have as they anticipate and actually communicate interculturally. Feelings- the emotional or affective states that you experience with someone from a different culture Intentions- what guides your choices in a particular intercultural interaction. Your goals, plans, objectives, and desires. Actions : Actions The actual performance of those behaviors that are regarded as appropriate and effective. You can have the necessary information, be motivated by the appropriate feelings and intentions but still lack the behavior skills necessary to achieve competence. Cultural Patterns : Cultural Patterns Shared beliefs, values, and norms that are stable over time They can be seen, heard, and experienced only indirectly The consequences of these patters are evident in what people say and do- are readily observable They provide a way of thinking about the world, or orienting oneself to it. Beliefs : Beliefs An idea that people assume to be true about the world. A set of learned interpretations that form the basis for cultural members to decide what is and what is not logical and correct. Usually unconscious. Examples: Physical and spiritual worlds are separate Humans are separate from nature Values : Values What a culture regards as good or bad, right or wrong, fair or unfair, just or unjust, beautiful or ugly, clean or dirty, valuable or worthless. Values are the desired characteristics or goals of a culture they do not necessarily describe a cultures actual behaviors and characteristics. Norms : Norms The outward manifestations of beliefs and values, which are socially shared expectations of appropriate behaviors. More likely to change over time They are the surface characteristics that emerge from a culture’s beliefs and values. Because they are evident from behaviors, they are readily observed. Descriptors of Cultural Patters : Descriptors of Cultural Patters Activity Orientation Social Relations Orientation Self Orientation World Orientation Time Orientation Activity Orientation : Activity Orientation Defines how the people of a culture view human actions and the expressions of self through activities Is it important to be engaged in activities to be a “good” person? Can and should people change the circumstances of their lives? Is work very different from play? Which is more important? Work or play? Being, Becoming and Doing : Being, Becoming and Doing Being: values inaction and an acceptance of the status quo. All events are determined by fate and are therefore inevitable Becoming: See humans as evolving and changing Doing: You are defined by what you do. A striving culture, in which people seek to change and control what is happening to them Social Relations Orientation : Social Relations Orientation Describes how people organize themselves and relate to one another. To what extent are some people in the culture considered better or superior? Can social superiority be obtained through birth, age, good deeds or material achievement? Does the language require people to make social distinctions? What responsibilities do people have to their extended families, neighbors, employers? Self Orientation : Self Orientation Describes how people’s identities are formed, whether the culture views the self as changeable, what motivates individual actions, which people are valued and respected? Do people believe they are unique? Does the self reside in the individual or in the group? What responsibilities does the individual have? What motivates people? Can you respect someone judged as bad in one part of life, but successful in another? World Orientation : World Orientation How people locate themselves in relation to the spiritual world, nature, and other living things Are humans intrinsically good or evil? Are humans different from animals and plants? Are people in control of, subjugated by, or living in harmony with the forces of nature? Do spirits of the dead inhabit and affect the human world? Time Orientation : Time Orientation How people conceptualize time How should time be valued and understood? Is time a scarce resource or is it unlimited? Is the desirable pace of life fast or slow? Is time linear or cyclical? Conclusion : Conclusion Culture is a learned set of values, beliefs and norms To communicate competently you need context, appropriateness, effectiveness, knowledge, motivation, and action Cultural Patterns exist: Values, Beliefs, Norms Cultural Patterns have several descriptors Activity, Social, Self, World, and Time You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.