Slide 1: APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING BY :
2ND PHASE Genetic engineering : Genetic engineering Genetic engineering alters the genetic makeup of an organism using techniques that introduce heritable material prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then fused or hybridised with the host. ***The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change. Agriculture : Agriculture -food processors affected by genetic engineering.
-shelf-life, storage, food-handling;extended and simplified.
-help resist spoilage. plants transformed-insect,disease, and herbicide resistant.-animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat. Slide 4: Organisms altered by genetic engineering.
-genetic material changed by other than random natural breeding.
-gene transfer-moving a gene from one organism to another. GMO- genetically modified organism.
-GMO free food-product in which no transgenic materials were used in its manufacture, such as soybeans used in making oils.
-GEO-genetically enhanced organism Transgenic organisms Industrial Applications of Genetic Engineering : Industrial Applications of Genetic Engineering It include the synthesis of substances of commercial importance in industry and pharmacy, improvement of existing fermentation processes (Bioprocessing), and the production of proteins from wastes -more efficient use of scarce minerals-greater efficiency in mining.-major concern-waste management.-biodegrade a number of waste products-sewage and petroleum products. Environmental Applications of Genetic Engineering- : Environmental Applications of Genetic Engineering- - Genetically modified microorganisms could be used for degradation of wastes, in sewage, oil spills, etc.
Ex: Strains of Pseudomonas that can break down a variety of hydrocarbons Pharmaceutical Products : Pharmaceutical Products -Pharmacology-preparation, use, & effect of drugs-tied to health and medicine-potential production of drugs is great.
-hormone production-natural in endocrine system of mammalian body. In Understanding of Biological Processes : : In Understanding of Biological Processes : Genetic engineering techniques have been used for acquiring basic knowledge about - biological processes like gene structure and expression, chromosome mapping, cell differentiation and the intergation of viral genomes. Medicinal Applications of Genetic Engineering : Medicinal Applications of Genetic Engineering Human insulin genes have been implanted in bacteria which, therefore, become capable of synthesizing insulin. Bacterial insulin is identical to human insulin, since it is coded by human genes. Diabetics have been receiving bacterial insulin in test programmes, and it appears to be
as effective as insulin from animal
sources.***Growth hormone Hormones Production of Human Insulin- : Production of Human Insulin- Vaccines : Vaccines Gardisil or Silgard is a vaccine proven to prevent certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) specifically HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11 ***Vaccines against malaria and
hepatitis may also be produced
in the near future. Interferons- : Interferons- Interferons are virus induced proteins having anti-viral in action. ****Interferon provides natural defence against such viral diseases as hepatitis and influenza. It also appears to be effective against certain types of cancer, especially cancer of the breast and lymph nodes. : : : Alpha (α) thalassemias :Deletion of the 16p chromosome. α thalassemias result in decreased alpha-globin production ***Beta thalassemias are
due to mutations in
the HBB gene on
chromosome 11 . Hereditary diseases:-Thalassemias Sickle cell disease : Sickle cell disease The specific molecular defect was identified as a single amino acid substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta-globin polypeptide chain. genetic mutation in the globin gene as a change in the codon GAG to GTG. Treatment : Treatment Non-defective genes could be transferred into the bone marrow along with the methotrexate-resistance genes. Treatment with methotrexate would then destroy the cells containing defective genes and would permit the non-defective cells to form bone marrow Haemophilia:- : Haemophilia:- Factor replacement can be either isolated from human blood serum, recombinant, or a combination of the two Cystic Fibrosis - : Cystic Fibrosis - There are several mechanisms mutations caused problems with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR ]protein.
ΔF508, for instance, creates a protein
that does not fold
population result in proteins that are
too short because production
is ended prematurely.
that do not use energy normally, do not allow chloride, iodide and thiocyanate to cross the membrane appropriately, or are degraded at a faster rate than normal. Treatment : Treatment *****Gene therapy to treat cystic fibrosis involves the sequencing and cloning of the CFTR gene Huntington’s Chorea : Huntington’s Chorea trinucleotide repeat disorders cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG)—repeated multiple times (i.e. ... CAGCAGCAG ...), production of series of chain of glutamine known as a polyglutamine tract (or polyQ tract), and the repeated part of the gene, the PolyQ region. Huntington’s Choria : Huntington’s Choria Huntington’s Chorea TREATMENT Other Medical Applications:- : Other Medical Applications:- Enzymes.
The enzyme urokinase, which is used to dissolve blood clots, has been produced by genetically engineered microorganisms Antibodies.
One of the aims of genetic engineering is the production of hybridomas. These are long lived cells that can produce antibodies for use against disease Reference: : Reference: WIKIPEDIA