STRUKTUR JARINGAN PPT

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1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 5 Lecture PowerPoint Tissues

5.1: Introduction: 

2 5.1: Introduction Similar cells with a common function are called tissues . The study of tissues is called histology . There are four (4) primary or major tissue types: Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue

Intercellular Junctions: 

3 Intercellular Junctions Tight junctions Close the space between cells Located among cells that form linings Desmosomes Form “spot welds” between cells Located among outer skin cells Gap junctions Tubular channels between cells Links cytoplasm of 2 cells Located in cardiac muscle cells Tight junction Cell membrane Cell membrane Cell membrane Desmosome Gap junction Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

5.2: Epithelial Tissue: 

4 5.2: Epithelial Tissue General characteristics: Cover organs and the body Line body cavities Line hollow organs Have a free surface (apical) Have a basement membrane Are avascular Cells readily divide Cells tightly packed Cells often have desmosomes Function in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers

Epithelial Tissue: 

5 Epithelial Tissue Simple squamous: Single layer of flat cells Substances pass easily through Line air sacs Line blood vessels Line lymphatic vessels Simple cuboidal: Single layer of cube-shaped cells Line kidney tubules Cover ovaries Line ducts of some glands (b) (a) Free surface of tissue Simple squamous epithelium Basement Nucleus Connective tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b,d: © Ed Reschke Nucleus Basement membrane Free surface of tissue Simple cuboidal epithelium Connective tissue Lumen (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Epithelial Tissue: 

6 Simple columnar: Single layer of elongated cells Nuclei usually near the basement membrane at same level Sometimes possess cilia Sometimes possess microvilli Often have goblet cells Line uterus, stomach, intestines Pseudostratified columnar : Single layer of elongated cells Nuclei at two or more levels Appear striated Often have cilia Often have goblet cells Line respiratory passageways Nucleus Basement membrane Microvilli (free surface of tissue) Connective tissue Mucus Cytoplasm Goblet cell (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer. (a) (b) Cilia (free surface of tissue) Goblet cell Basement membrane Nucleus Connective tissue Cytoplasm Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue: 

7 Stratified squamous : Many cell layers Top cells are flat Outer layer of skin Line oral cavity, vagina, and anal canal Stratified cuboidal : 2-3 layers Cube-shaped cells Line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and the pancreas Basement membrane Layer of dividing cells Connective tissue Free surface of tissue Squamous cells (b) (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer (a) (b) Stratified cuboidal epithelium Free surface of tissue Lumen Basement membrane Connective tissue Nucleus Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer. Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue: 

8 Stratified columnar : Top layer of elongated cells Cube-shaped cells in deeper layers Line part of male urethra and part of pharynx Transitional : Many cell layers Cube-shaped and elongated cells Line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra (b) (a) Lumen Stratified columnar epithelium Connective tissue Basement membrane Free surface of tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Stretched transitional epithelium Basement membrane Underlying connective tissue Basement membrane Underlying connective tissue Unstretched transitional epithelium (b) (a) (d) (c) Free surface of tissue Free surface of tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b,d: © Ed Reschke Epithelial Tissue

Glandular Epithelium: 

9 Glandular Epithelium Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances There are two (2) types: Endocrine glands are ductless (key word: hormone) Exocrine glands have ducts Unicellular exocrine gland : Composed of one cell Goblet cell Multicellular exocrine gland : Composed of many cells Sweat glands, salivary glands, etc. Simple and compound

Structural Types of Exocrine Glands: 

10 Structural Types of Exocrine Glands Duct Secretory portion Tissue surface Simple tubular Simple branched tubular Simple branched alveolar Simple coiled tubular Compound tubular Compound alveolar Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Types of Glandular Secretions: 

11 Types of Glandular Secretions Merocrine Glands Fluid product Salivary glands Pancreas gland Sweat glands Apocrine Glands Portions of cells Mammary glands Ceruminous glands Holocrine Glands Whole cells Sebaceous glands (a) Merocrine gland (b) Apocrine gland (c) Holocrine gland Secretion Pinched off portion of cell (secretion) Intact cell Disintegrating cell and its contents (secretion) New cell forming by mitosis and cytokinesis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

5.3: Connective Tissues: 

12 5.3: Connective Tissues General characteristics: Most abundant tissue type Many functions: Bind structures Provide support and protection Serve as frameworks Fill spaces Store fat Produce blood cells Protect against infections Help repair tissue damage Have a matrix Have varying degrees of vascularity Have cells that usually divide

Connective Tissue Major Cell Types Present: 

13 Connective Tissue Major Cell Types Present Fibroblasts Fixed cell Most common cell Large, star-shaped Produce fibers Macrophages Wandering cell Phagocytic Important in injury or infection Mast cells Fixed cell Release heparin Release histamine

Connective Tissue Fiber Types Present: 

14 Connective Tissue Fiber Types Present Collagenous fibers Thick Composed of collagen Great tensile strength Abundant in dense CT Hold structures together Tendons, ligaments Elastic fibers Bundles of microfibrils embedded in elastin Fibers branch Elastic Vocal cords, air passages Reticular fibers Very thin collagenous fibers Highly branched Form supportive networks

Connective Tissues: 

15 Connective Tissues Connective Tissue Proper: Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue Reticular connective tissue Dense connective tissue Elastic connective tissue Specialized Connective Tissue: Cartilage Bone Blood

Connective Tissue Types: 

16 Connective Tissue Types Loose Connective Tissue Mainly fibroblasts Fluid to gel-like matrix Collagenous fibers Elastic fibers Bind skin to structures Beneath most epithelia Blood vessels nourish nearby epithelial cells Between muscles Adipose Tissue Adipocytes Cushions Insulates Store fats Beneath skin Behind eyeballs Around kidneys and heart Elastic fiber (a) (b) Collagenous fiber Fibroblast Ground substance Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer Fat droplet (a) (b) Nucleus Cell membrane Cytsol Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

Connective Tissue Types: 

17 Connective Tissue Types Reticular Connective Tissue Composed of reticular fibers Supports internal organ walls Walls of liver, spleen, lymphatic organs Dense Connective Tissue Packed collagenous fibers Elastic fibers Few fibroblasts Bind body parts together Tendons, ligaments, dermis Poor blood supply Collagenous fibers Fibroblast White blood cell (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Fibroblasts Collagenous fibers (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

Connective Tissue Types: 

18 Connective Tissue Types Elastic Connective Tissue Abundant in elastic fibers Some collagenous fibers Fibroblasts Attachments between bones Walls of large arteries, airways, heart Bone (Osseous Tissue) Solid matrix Supports Protects Forms blood cells Attachment for muscles Skeleton Osteocytes in lacunae Elastic fibers Collagenous fibers Fibroblast (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 21 Canaliculi Osteocyte in lacuna Central canal Lamella Nucleus Osteocyte Cell process in canaliculus (a) (b) Osteon Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

Connective Tissue Types: 

19 Connective Tissue Types Cartilage Rigid matrix Chondrocytes in lacunae Poor blood supply Three (3) types: Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage Hyaline cartilage Most abundant Ends of bones Nose, respiratory passages Embryonic skeleton Elastic cartilage Flexible External ear, larynx Fibrocartilage Very tough Shock absorber Intervertebral discs Pads of knee and pelvic girdle

Connective Tissue Types: 

20 Connective Tissue Types Three (3) types of cartilage: Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage Chondrocyte Nucleus Extracellular matrix (a) (b) Lacuna Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Chondrocyte Elastic fibers Nucleus Extracellular matrix (a) (b) Lacuna Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Chondrocyte Nucleus Collagenous fiber Extracellular matrix (a) (b) Lacuna Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Connective Tissue Types: 

21 Connective Tissue Types Blood Fluid matrix called plasma Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Transports Defends Involved in clotting Throughout body in blood vessels Heart Red blood cells Plasma (extracellular matrix of blood) Platelets White blood cell (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

5.4: Types of Membranes: 

22 5.4: Types of Membranes 1. Serous Membranes Line body cavities that do not open to the outside Reduce friction Inner lining of thorax and abdomen Cover organs of thorax and abdomen Secrete serous fluid 2. Mucous Membranes Line tubes and organs that open to outside world Lining of mouth, nose, throat, etc. Secrete mucus 3. Cutaneous Membranes Covers body Skin 4. Synovial Membranes Composed entirely of connective tissue Lines joints There are four (4) types of epithelial membranes:

5.5: Muscle Tissues: 

23 5.5: Muscle Tissues General characteristics: Muscle cells also called muscle fibers Contractile Three (3) types: Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Skeletal muscle Attached to bones Striated Voluntary Smooth muscle Walls of organs Skin Walls of blood vessels Involuntary Non-striated Cardiac muscle Heart wall Involuntary Striated Intercalated discs

Muscle Tissue: 

24 Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Striations Portion of a muscle fiber Nuclei (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Nucleus Cytoplasm (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer Intercalated disc Nucleus Striations (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

5.6: Nervous Tissue: 

25 5.6: Nervous Tissue Found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves Functional cells are neurons Neuroglial cells support and bind nervous tissue components Sensory reception Conduction of nerve impulses Cell membrane Neuroglial cells Cytoplasm Cellular process Nucleus (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © Ed Reschke.