Training & development

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All About training and development its need and role in the organisation

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1 TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT indiavisit@ovi.com

Training:

Training 9-2 Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge, understanding & the skills relevant to his or her job. In short, Training: Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job Focuses attention on the individual job. Concentrates on individual employees Gives importance to short term performance Areas of training are Knowledge, Technical skills, Social skills & Techniques indiavisit@ovi.com 2

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Need For Training 9-3 Need for organizations to build and sustain competencies that would provide them with competitive advantage. Growth oriented organizations value training as a response to changing environment Knowledge era & Human assets are valued highly. It is an important and integral part of organizational renewal process Meet organizational objectives by making employees more versatile, mobile, flexible and useful to the organization Improves quality and productivity Improves organizational climate Prevent accidents indiavisit@ovi.com 3

Need For Training :

Need For Training More specifically in individual terms: Aids in new entrants attaining role clarity Promotions: helps existing employees to prepare for higher level jobs Prevents skill obsolescence by enabling existing employees to keep in touch with latest developments Permits employees to cope with changes brought in by frequent transfers Bridges the gap what the employee has and what the job demands Allows an employee to gain acceptance from peer groups readily 4 indiavisit@ovi.com

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9-4 Training vs. Development Training is concerned with teaching specific job related skills and behaviour. Development is future oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. Training vs. Development indiavisit@ovi.com 5

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9-5 Training vs. Education Training, more or less, is job oriented (skill) learning. Education, on the other hand, is a person-oriented, theory-based knowledge whose main purpose is to improve the understanding of a particular subject (a kind of conceptual learning). indiavisit@ovi.com 6

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9-6 Learning oriented guidelines: Modeling Motivation Reinforcement Feedback Spaced practice Whole learning Active practice Relevance Environment The Philosophy of Training indiavisit@ovi.com 7

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9-8 Skills training Refresher training Cross functional training Team training Creativity training Diversity training Literacy training Types of Training indiavisit@ovi.com 8

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9-11 A Systematic Approach To Training Phase I – Needs assessment Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D Phase III - Evaluation PHASE-I: Training needs assessment Involves three types of analysis: Organizational analysis : This is a study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, utilization of resources to achieve objectives etc. b. Task or role analysis: Detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be performed. c. Person analysis: here the focus is on the individual in a given job; whether training is needed, whether the employee is capable of being trained, and the areas where the training is needed. indiavisit@ovi.com 9

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9-13 Data sources used in training needs assessment Organisational Analysis Task Analysis Person Analysis Organisational goals and objectives Job descriptions Performance data or appraisals Personnel inventories Job specifications Work sampling Skills inventories Performance standards Interviews Organisational climate analysis Performing the job Questionnaires Eff iciency indexes Work sampling Changes in systems or subsystems Reviewing literature on Customer/employee (e.g., equipment) the job attitude surveys Management requests Asking questions about Training progress the job Exit interviews Training committees Rating scales MBO or work planning systems Analysis of operating problems Customer survey/satisfaction data Diaries Devised situations (e.g., role play) Assessment centers MBO or work planning systems indiavisit@ovi.com 10

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9-14 Identify training objectives: Training objectives can be of three types : Innovative Problem solving Regular PHASE-II : Design & Delivery of T & D Training design- learning principles Training methods: Formal training methods include 1) On the job training and 2) Off the job training. T & D Plan implementation Training needs assessment indiavisit@ovi.com 11

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9-16 On The Job Training Methods Job instruction training (JIT): This is training directly received on the job. Here the trainee receives an overview of the job. The trainer actually demonstrates the job and the trainee is asked to copy the trainer’s way. The trainee, finally, tries to perform the job independently. indiavisit@ovi.com 12

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9-17 Coaching: Here the supervisor explains things and answers questions; throws light on why things are done the way they are; offers a model for trainees to copy, conducts lot of decision making meetings, and allows trainees freedom to commit mistakes and learn .Coaching, thus, requires lot of teaching skills. Mentoring: The use of an experienced person to teach and train someone with less knowledge and experience in a given area is known as mentoring. The mentor nurtures, supports and guides the efforts of young persons by giving appropriate information, feedback and encouragement whenever required. On The Job Training Methods indiavisit@ovi.com 13

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9-19 Job rotation: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to another. On The Job Training Methods Merits and demerits of Job rotation Merits Demerits Improves participant’s job skills, job satisfaction Increased workload for participants Provides valuable opportunities to network within Constant job change may produce the organisation stress and anxiety Offers faster promotions and higher salaries to Mere multiplication of duties do not quick learners enrich the life of a trainee Lateral transfers may be beneficial in rekindling Development costs may shoot up when enthusiasm and developing new talents trainees commit mistakes, handle tasks less optimally indiavisit@ovi.com 14

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Apprenticeship training: Most craft workers such as plumbers, carpenters etc are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. In this method, the trainees are put under the guidance of a master worker typically for 2-5 years. Committee assignments: In this method, trainees are asked to solve an actual organisational programme working along with other trainees. 9-20 On The Job Training Methods indiavisit@ovi.com 15

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9-21 Off The Job Training Methods Vestibule training: It occurs off the job on equipment or methods that are highly similar to those used on the job. Role playing: This is a development technique requiring the trainee to assume a role in a given situation and act out behaviours associated with that role. Lecture method: Here the instructor organises the study material on a specific topic and offers it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. Conference or discussion method: In this method the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainees in a discussion so that the doubts about the job to be undertaken get clarified. Programmed instruction: This is an approach that puts material to be learned into highly organised logical sequences that require the trainees to respond indiavisit@ovi.com 16

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9-22 Evaluation of A Training Programme Training can be evaluated at five levels: reaction, learning, behaviour, organisation and results. Important decision points in training evaluation may be listed thus; Important decision points in planning training evaluation Should an evaluation be made? Who should evaluate? What is the purpose of evaluation? What will be measured? How comprehensive will the evaluation be? Who has the authority and responsibility? What are the sources of data? How will the data be collected and evaluated? How will the data be analysed and reported? indiavisit@ovi.com 17

Benefits of E-learning:

Benefits of E-learning Learning at ones own pace Accessibility Active learning Cost effectiveness Collaborative learning Personalized learning environment indiavisit@ovi.com 18

Weakness of E-learning:

Weakness of E-learning Shift of focus to the learner Data over load Data unreliability Net work/ hardware unreliability Access control Less theory indiavisit@ovi.com 19

Development:

Development 20 indiavisit@ovi.com

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10-4 Features of executive development It is a planned effort to improve executives’ ability to handle a variety of assignments It is not a one-shot deal, but a continuous, ongoing activity It aims at improving the total personality of an executive It aims at meeting future needs unlike training, which seeks to meet current needs It is a long term process, as managers take time to acquire and improve their capabilities It is proactive in nature as it focuses attention on the present as well as future requirements of both the organisation and the individual indiavisit@ovi.com 21

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10-5 Invaluable investment in the long run as it helps managers to acquire requisite knowledge, skills and abilities needed to handle complex situations in business Enables executives to realise their own career goals and aspirations Helps executives to step into superior positions easily Assists executives in enhancing their people-management skills, taking a holistic view of various problems. Importance of executive development indiavisit@ovi.com 22

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10-6 Executive Development Programmes: Steps Analysis of organisational development needs Appraisal of present managerial capabilities Inventory of executive talent(in terms of age, service, education, experience etc Planning of individual development programmes Devising appropriate development programmes Evaluating results indiavisit@ovi.com 23

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10-7 Methods/techniques Methods of executive development indiavisit@ovi.com 24

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