What is Bone Marrow Transplant

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A bone marrow or cord blood transplant replaces unhealthy blood-forming cells with healthy ones. https://indianmedtrip.com/treatments/bone-marrow-transplant/

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What is Bone Marrow Transplant? Bone Marrow Transplant ideally replaces bone marrow which is either not working properly or ablated (destroyed) by radiation or chemotherapy. Your doctor may recommend a bone marrow transplant in certain cancers like lymphoma, leukemia or multiple leukemia or multiple myeloma. Other conditions calling for BMT include aplastic anemia affecting the production of bone marrow cells, severe immunodeficiency syndrome, congenital neutropenia, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia or if chemotherapy has destroyed your bone marrow.

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Bone Marrow Transplant Bone Marrow is a tissue present inside bone & looks like soft sponge, red & yellow in color. Red marrow looks red because of the presence of hemoglobin & works in the production of red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets. Yellow marrow got its color from fat carotenoids & is responsible for producing fatty cells, bone & cartilage. Blood marrow is generally red till the age of 7. Later on red marrow gets replaced by fat tissue & is found in flat bones. In bone marrow transplant , damaged bone marrow cells are replaced with healthy marrow. As a protective measure, before any radiation or chemotherapy healthy stem cells are harvested from cancer patients. They are again injected back after treatment to restore immunity. Biopsy & aspiration are methods to examine the bone marrow tissue. Transplantation is serious, severe & encompasses lengthy post-treatment sessions.

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The role of bone marrow Marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that produces blood-forming cells. Blood-forming cells are immature cells that can grow into red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body White blood cells help fight infections Platelets help control bleeding

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Bone Marrow Transplant Treatments

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Autologous Transplantation In this process, person’s own stem cells are used & transplanted. These are stored & then used to replace the cells that are damaged by chemotherapy. Different types of cancers which are treatable by autologous bone marrow transplant are myeloma, leukemia lymphomas, breast cancer, osteosarcoma , testicular cancer & others.

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Allogeneic Transplantation In this type of transplantation, another person donates stem cells to the patient, but condition is that they should be genetically related. The donor will have to undergo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching tests to qualify.

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Leukemia Bone Marrow Cancer: This cancer begins in blood stem cells resulting in high number abnormal count of stem cells. This cancer has two types, one is Lymphocytic leukemia where lymphocytes count is more & another is myelogenous leukemia where red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes or platelets count is more. Both are dangerous.

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Aplastic Anemia In this condition there is a permanent stoppage of blood cells production. It is caused due to injury or infection to bone marrow. This ailment generates fatigued feeling with uncontrolled bleeding & higher risk of infections .

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Sickle Cell Anemia This is an inherited form of anemia; Sick Cell Anemia is a medical condition wherein there are insufficient healthy red blood cells in the body to carry necessary oxygen supply. Red blood cells are normally round & flexible so as to easily move around inside blood vessels.

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Multiple Myeloma This cancer affects the main system of body i.e. the immune system. Plasma cells are responsible for producing immunoglobulins (main antibodies ). Due to uncontrollable multiplication of plasma cells whole body is affected hence the name “multiple myeloma”.

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