history of trade union

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History of Trade Union, EVOLUTION OF TRADE UNION

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HISTORY OF TU:

HISTORY OF TU TU – outcome of factory system – Based on labour philosophy (united v stand divided v fall)

Slide 2:

Fourteen decades old – 1860 – Philanthropists & social reformers – inhuman working conditions – difficulties – Strike committees – demanding privileges 145 yrs – put into 6 periods

1.Pre 1918:

1.Pre 1918 Bengal – 1860 – Dinbandhu Mitra – (dramatist & Social reformer) + journalists – hardship of cultivators & plantation workers – Govt – Indigo committee – report – cruelties by plantation owners (aid of British law) – abolished 1875 – Sarobji Shapuri – Bengal – Poor working conditions – Secretary of State – Ist Factory Commission – Factories Act enacted - 1881

Slide 4:

Act – not meet Child labour & Women workers – Another Commission(1884) – N.K.Lokhande – Bombay – memorandum signed by 5300 workers – rest on Sunday – ½ hr recess – Hrs btn 6.30 to sunset – payment within 15 th -injury compensation 1889 – Bombay – workers demanded the same

Slide 5:

No use – another representation to Govt – 1890 – Now signed by 17000 workers – Started Bombay Mills association – Lokhande (president) – Labour journal (Dinbandhu) – placed demands b4 Factory Labour Commission(1890) – Bangalee (member) – gave due consideration Several unions were formed

Slide 6:

Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants (India & Burma) – 1897 – Indian Companies Act –Printers Union – 1905 – Calcutta – Bombay Postal Union – 1907 - Kamgar Hityardhak Sabha – 1910 Post 1890 – several strikes – Bombay(1894) – Big strike – Mill operatives of Ahmadabad – Feb 1896 – Weekly to fortnightly wage system – Strike unsuccessful

Slide 7:

Jute Industries Calcutta(1896) – Bombay(1897)- daily wages – Plague – Press & Machine section of Madras(1903) – overtime work without payment – 6 month – Starvation & hardship – returned to work 2 yrs later – Govt of India Press – Calcutta – questioned Non-payment on Sunday & gazetted holidays Imposition of irregular fines Low rate of overtime pay Refusal of authorities to grant leave on medical certificate

Slide 8:

Strike continued – returned on partial fulfillment Dec 1907 - Eastern railway workshop – Increment of wages – After 6 days – xtra allowance due to famine – Bombay postal union & Indian telegraph Association – 1908 – Textile cooperative workers – in sympathy – Bal Ganga dhar Tilak – 1910 – reduction of working hours – commission setup – recommended - 12 hours a day

Certain features:

Certain features Movement led by philanthropists & social reformers not by workers No trade Union in modern sense Association relied on petition, memoranda, other constitutional means to place demands Early movement confined to revolt against conditions of child labour & women workers in various industries Absence of strikes - grievance redressed Strike - problem of law & order – police charging strikers

1918 - 1924:

1918 - 1924 Era of Modern trade unionism Madras labour union,Ahmedabad Textile labour Association, Indian Seamen’s Union, Calcutta Clerk’s Union, All India Postal All India Trade Union Congress started 1920 Trade unions – strikes – Economy down – Increased Wages not match for Price rise – Labour shortage – Due to Influeza

Factors responsible for growth:

Factors responsible for growth Demand for Indian goods rose – shortage in shipping facilities – Same – trade unions – bargaining position Political conditions helped growth of TU – mutually needed Revolution in Russia – impact on TU movement Worldwide Unrest in the post-war period India – International labour Organisation (1919) –Govt didn’t consult unions – need to organise – AITUC formed – members sent – changed Govt attitude

1925 - 1934:

1925 - 1934 Split in AITUC – Leftist & Rightist Wing All India Trade Union Federation 1929 Communist Influence – Hardship of workers – decrease in Industrial conflict – 2 reasons - Trade Disputes act(1929) – Failure in lockouts & strikes led to strife Trade Unions Act 1926 – registration of TU & legal protection Trade Disputes Act(1929) – adhoc conciliation of board & court of enquiry for settlement of trade disputes – Affects whole community

1935-1938:

1935-1938 Unity forced – revival – 1935 All India Red Trade Union Congress – merged with AITUC – 1938 agreement btn AITUF & AITUC – NTUC affiliated with AITUC Factors – Change of political setup (Congress Govt) – Strengthen TU & Conditions of Labour – Working class weakened better conditions – Mgt Changed attitude on TU

Slide 14:

1938 – Bombay Industrial Disputes Act – features Compulsory recognition of TU by employers Right to employee – case thro – representatives (or) Govt labour Officer Certification of standing orders – Working conditions known to workmen Industrial Court – where Arbitration / Conciliation didn’t do good Prohibition of strike & lockout

1939-1946:

1939-1946 WWII – Chaos – in IR – unrest due to – Price rise no pace to wage increase – Split in AITUC – Post war retrenchment & unemployment – Increase in TU & Women workers & strikes 1946 – Industrial enactment act – uniformity in workmen employment & minimise conflict –employer more than 100 employees define conditions & make it known to workers BIRA – recognition of TU & Rights

1947-since :

1947-since TU diversified on Political considerations Labour leaders of Congress party – Indian National Trade Union Congress(1947) 1948 Socialist party – Hind Mazdoor Sabha 1949 – United trade Union Congress 1947 - Industrial Disputes Act – Strike prohibition without prior intimation & Trade Unions (amendment) Act – recognition of TU & Penalties for unfair practices

Slide 17:

23 Jul 1954 Bharatiya Mazdoor party (BJP) – Check communist unions Changes in Trade union Act 1960 Patna 21 Mar 1964 – All India Trade Union Congress by independent Unions – but vain 2 changes in the act in 1964 Split - Centre of Indian Trade Union by Marxist communist from AITUC’70 –United Trade Union Congress Lenin Sarani (1970-72)

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