History of Road in Indonesia_by.imma

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さいたまだいがく History of Road in Indonesia D50120: Advance Infrastructure Planning and Management Lecturer: Prof. Koji Tsunokawa BY: イッマウィドワチアグスチン 08DE055

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Preface : History of Road APPIAN road link,constructed by aggregate pavement, was built in 512BC. The main route connecting Rome to Greece and still exist until now At the beginning road was probably introduced by ROMANS. Based on history they tried to build road for defence and expansion purposes. At that time roads had many functions besides connecting the capital to areas surrounding. In line with the objective of its development, the construction of roads were very strong to enable it to be passed by cavairy and wagons which contained logistics needs. Financially, development of roads didn’t spend high cost, because of the Empire of Rome mobilized soldiers to do that when they were not going to the battle. BESIDE, development of roads were also done by forced labors from Rome’s colonies. Certainly there were MANY VICTIMS during those development.

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Imaginer picture of the usage of Indonesian people as force labor in the development of Post Highway from Anyer to Panarukan Road development system which done by forced labor at the time of Rome Empire inspired HERMAN WILLIAM DAENDELS as a governor general of Indies. He got a mandate government to develop the colonial defence system in JAVA to anticipate the aggression of British. Soon he declared an ambitious road development project which connected the West of Java to the East of Java which well known as ANYER- PANARUKAN HIGHWAY. The project which started at 19th century brought about MANY VICTIMS. Consequently, it occurred confrontation in many areas that passed by the project, mainly from the native leaders whose people worked as forced labor. EVENTHOUGH thousands of victims were suffered, DAENDELS didn’t diminish to overcome it. FINALLY, it became a MONUMENTAL ROAD DEVELOPMENT PROJECT until now.

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One of road link of Post Highway connecting Bandung-Sumedang (Now, it is wellknown as Cadas Pangeran road) The success of DAENDELS to build the road from ANYER to PANARUKAN can be considered as the basis of modern and massive road development in Indonesia. Moreover the steps of Daendels’s project then became the origin of road network system which are very important to connect many areas in Java. After building highway between ANYER to PANARUKAN, Colonial government also built a number of highway projects out of Java such as PADANG BUKIT TINGGI HIGHWAY in West Sumatera. Similar to ANYER-PANARUKAN, it was also built to strengthen the colonial defence system in Sumatera island. Up to now one of KELOK SEMBILAN ROADS which connected PAYAKUMBUH to PEKANBARU still exist and can be passed by many riders. There was no significant change had been made to the route of that road since its development in 1920. Condition of Kelok Sembilan road in 1920

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Kelok Sembilan road in West Sumatera which is one of roads that built during colonial era and still being used until now After the Independence Day on August 17, 1945 road development GOT MORE PRIORITY. The increasing people needs for transportation infrastructure and the progressive road construction technologies have made road development programmes in Indonesia became for more dynamic than one of it during the colonial era. IN CONTRAST with the colonial era, road development programmes after the Independence were mostly based on ECONOMIC and SOCIAL consideration. After difficult times during the early years of independence, road development in Indonesia made significant progress. The road projects were done in MANY AREAS, not only in the capital cities or Java but also in other islands, regions, and villages.

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Road which connect village areas and urban areas Because of those road development : The economy has been improved fastly, Some isolated areas were opened, and the most important, the covered distance and the covered time between two areas become shorter. GEOGRAPHICALLY, Indonesia consists of thousands islands. Certainly it can not depend only on road transportation system, but also need support of other transportation, namely sea, river-crossing (ferry) and air transportation. Integration of all transportation networks will become more important when we want to reach the isolated areas across the archipelago. The success of building an integrated transportation network has an important role to improve and to strengthen the unity of nation.

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Ferry Port of Gilimanuk Bali In general, land connection and intermoda in Indonesia can be divided into SIX MAIN REGIONS GROUP, namely : Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Halmahera, And Papua. To support those connections, trans-road networking system was built, such as : Trans-Sumatera Trans-Kalimantan Trans-Sulawesi Trans-Halmahera Trans-Papua And so did MANY PIERS for sea and river-crossing transportation (ASDP) to connect isolated places which are difficult to be reached by land transportation. In line with it, there are approximately 120 piers have been built to cross the big and small rivers, among others are Merak-Bakaheuni, Ujung Surabaya-Bangkalan and Banyuwangi- Gilimanuk.

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Road Development Before Independence Day Means of transportation during pre-independence era INSTITUTION OF ROAD MANAGEMENT Although road as a part of human civilization in Indonesia had been established for a long time, but it is NOT EASY to find out how exactly the road be managed during the early days of its development, especially before the arrival of foreigners. Moreover, the valid sources of information related to this topic are very rare. Therefore, for the time being, what we can make is only an assumption that road management at the beginning of its existence probably was self-funded by the local people.

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ROAD CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY The pathway for people and animal used as a means of transportation was only made of solid soil and grass road. Along with increasing of needs, including means of transportation, road pavement used aggregate and sand gathered from river which enable it to be passed by heavier means of transportation. So, that the first construction made in Indonesia as a vehicle traffic probably is VERY SIMPLE and it is aimed for connecting many areas with short distance. USAGE of aggregate for road construction seems only to be started at Post Highway project from ANYER to PANARUKAN. Its construction consists of aggregate and sand which are spreaded to ensure smooth traffic for cart and wagon so they are able to run quickly. For road which lead to plantation generally are made of aggregate (steenlag) and in some parts are made of grass road (graswegen).

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Road Development After Independence Entering the era of Independence, responsibility for Road Management were hold by the Department of Public Works. Government gives serious attention on road development sector. It could be seen that there are two departments which have tasks to manage the road, namely Department of Highway and Department of Sumatera Highway. INSTITUTION OF ROAD MANAGEMENT Ampera Bridge : Is the first longest bridge in Indonesia Which used pre-stressed Technology and built by using Japanese war Reparation fund.

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The development of JAYAPURA-WAMENA road link The changing of leadership at national level was soon followed by changing of cabinet. And then, Depkimbangwil was changed become Department of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (Depkimpraswil) which is a recombination of State Ministry of Public Works and Depkimbangwil. At the beginning of Independence the efforts to build road projects didn’t go on as planned. To finance road development, the government only relied on Domestic Resources, such as forestry and mining. Foreign funding could be said only came from very limited war reparation fund. In the era of New Order, the government opened its door to the loan from other countries to realize road and bridge betterment programmes.

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The foreign aid which received by Directorate General of Highway can be divided into a number of categories based on source of loan or lending agency, characteristic of aid, type of aid, and interest rate of loan. Based on Source of the loan Bilateral Loan : It comes from a certain country, such as Japan (OECF), Saudi Arabian (SFD), Kuwaiti (KFAED), United States (USAID), Australia and Netherland. Multilateral Loan: It is a loan given by International Financial Institution such as ADB and IBRD. Based on Characteristic of Aid Grant: It is a free loan without paying back obligation Aid which is a loan that has to be paid back during certain period with a certain loan interest rate. Based on Type of Project Project Aid: It is the Aid to fund certain project which is written in the Loan Agreement Sectoral Aid: The Aid which is given to a specific development sector (in this case is Communication and Transportation Sector) A roller machine from the past time which still being used in today’s modern road development.

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Based on the interest rate of loan Soft Loan : The loan with low interest rate (under 3% p.a.), pay back period 20- 30 years with the grace period 7-10 years. Semi Soft Loan : It’s a loan with the level of loan interest rate between 3%-10% pa.a., pay back period 20-30 years with the grace period 7-10 years. Commercial Loan : It is the loan with high interest rate, usually more than 10% p.a. with short pay back period between 3-7 years. Considering the limited amount of domestic fund for road management, Directorate General of Highway needs high flexibility to allocate the foreign aid in order to achieve the balance of road sector development between one area to another. In this case, the loan that has a flexibility is SECTOR AID. Loan allocation from sectoral aid is not limited to a certain project, but can be allocated for project which directly support activities in the transportation and communication sector.

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The total length of road network that have been built BEFORE pelita I is 82,125 km : State road along 9,978 km Province road 21,116 km District road 48,717 km Urban road 2,314 km Approximately 20,017 km of that total are pavement road, 41,992 km are aggregate road, and 20,016 km are unpaved road. Pelita I , the total length of road increased to 84,297 km State road along 10,167 km Province road 22,682 km District road 49,134 km Urban road 2,314 km Pelita II , the total length of road increased to 101,258 km State road along 10,945 km Province road 25,878 km District road 58,159 km Urban road 6,276 km Approximately 29,583 km of that total are pavement road, 43,937 km are aggregate road, and 27,738 km are unpaved road. DEVELOPMENT OF ROAD NETWORK

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Pelita III , the total length of road increased to 131,500 km State road along 11,500 km Province road 27,500 km District road 81,686 km Urban road 10,804 km Approximately 58,188 km of that total are pavement road, 31,483 km are aggregate road, and 41,829 km are unpaved road. Pelita IV , the total length of road increased to 170,703 km Road network rehabilitation that can be achieved during Pelita IV is 18,000 km and road maintenance 97,775 km. Meanwhile, road and bridge betterment that can be achieved is 18,205 km road and 50,000 m bridge. Pelita V , covered 17,800 km national road; 32,250 km province road; 168,802 km district road and 25,510 km urban road. Besuk Kobo’an bridge in Lumajang, province of East Java Kaliketek bridge in Bojonegoro, province of East Java

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Batang-Weleri road link development, province of Central Java

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Mahakam bridge II in the province of East Kalimantan Widening of Pantura road pavement at Cikampek-Cirebon link Mahakam bridge II in the province of East Kalimantan ROAD CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY In this era of Independence, road construction technology in Indonesia found a number of new findings : One of them was CAKAR AYAM Foundation : It was found by Prof. Dr. Ir. Sediyatmo. This technology has been pioneered since 1959. Another significant invention in road construction technology is LPBH technology (Free Barrier Circulated Base) or well known as SOSROBAHU Technology : It is invented by Ir. Tjokorda Raka Sukawati, and it is usually used for pier head construction at many planned pillars. Another findings in road construction is SOIL CEMENT Technology : as a solution in road construction in area where is very difficult to find rock and sand materials.

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Lau Renun bridge at province of North Sumatera Napabomba bridge I At Tawaeli-Toboli road link, Province of North Sulawesi PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION is a well known technology in BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION. This construction developed by Ir. Sutami when built SEMANGGI BRIDGE in 1962 and AMPERA BRIDGE in 1965. Application of this technology is believed as the FIRST TIME APPLIED by national contractor in Indonesia. AMPERA bridge is the first longest bridge in Indonesia. It was built as connector of Bom Baru port to Railway station across Ulu 1 and Musi 2. Total the length of bridge is 1,117 m in the form of composite steel beam building and reinforced concrete box type beam. AMPERA bridge was built by using Japanese war reparation fund.

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CHALENGES AND CONSTRAINTS Sei Kahayan bridge, 640 m length, Connecting Palangkaraya-Buntok At province of Central Kalimantan, built in 1995-2001 Without an intension to ignore the past eras, the challenges of road development and road betterment in reformation era can be said as far more difficult than previous eras : Reformation, that has widely opened liberty for every community participation, has made road development and road betterment programmes become “OPEN IN THE AIR”, so that it can be accessed by everyone. In that situation, the involvement of community in every road development and road betterment programme is absolutly needed, particularly when very sensitive issues are involved such as land acquisition for project requirement. Without community participation and transparency of every related sides, road development and road betterment programmes could be stucked in the middle of their process or even failed at all to be carried out.

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Challenge and constraint of road links development along 585 km from Jayapura to Wamena whish supposed to split mountain and through the jungle area. Quite similar to the challenges of road development and road betterment, the constraints that might be faced in every road development and road betterment programme, besides the similarities from one periode to another, there are also specific characteristic. Similarly, the constraints of road development and road betterment during the reformation era will different with the constraints during the new order era and previous periode. Based on mapping of the constraints of road development and road betterment that might occurs during the reformation era, the constraints of road development and road betterment that might occurs during the reformation era can be mapped as follows :

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Old bridge of Sukawati connecting villages in province of Bali Balikpapan-Samarinda one of the link of Trans-Kalimantan. Geographically, the duty areas is very large and scattered so that road management needs a great amount of investment for maintenance and network expansion and new bridge development. Road and bridge infrastructure which is a part of national transportation sub-system, basically needs an integrated management with all intermoda system. The private sectors and the community are still hesitant to involve in road and bridge infrastructure investment. Needs of integrated priority programme, to develop inter province road and bridge, in line with Law of Regional Authonomy No. 22/ 1999.

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A historic road link in West Sumatera There are a number of oppurtunities in the future which needs to be anticipated in road development and road betterment programme : People’s prosperity is expected to be increased after the economic crisis and economic stability will be established. This condition is expected to increase mobility of people and commodity which in turn will stimulate increasing needs for road and bridge network. The increasing needs of people for road and bridge network is expected to increase safety for investors in road sector. Implementation of new law of road, is expected to bring about the assurance of systemic road development, road betterment, and road and bridge management. This assurance is basically not only needed by community and private sector, but also is needed by government in carrying out of road and bridge infrastructure development.

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