Stephen Krashen

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Stephen Krashen:

Stephen Krashen Professor/Leader in Bilingual Education

Second Language Acquisition:

Second Language Acquisition Five main hypotheses →the acquistion-learning hypothesis, →the monitor hypothesis, →the Natural Order hypothesis, →the Input hypothesis, →and the Affective filter hypothesis


Acquisition-Learning There are two independent systems of second language performance; the acquired system and the learned system. The acquired system or acquisition is the product of a subconscious process similar to the process children undergo when they acquire a first language. It requires meaningful interaction, a communicative act.

Monitor Hypothesis:

Monitor Hypothesis The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. The monitor acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has time to focus on form or thinks correctness and/or rules.

Natural Order Hypothesis:

Natural Order Hypothesis Grammatical structures follow a natural order. Some grammatical structures are acquired early while others later. This is independent of learner’s age, background, and conditions of exposure.

Input Hypothesis:

Input Hypothesis Is only concerned with acquisition, not learning. The learner improves and progresses along the natural order when he/she receives second language input that is one step beyond the current stage of linguistic competence.

Affective Filter Hypothesis :

Affective Filter Hypothesis A number of affective variables play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Learners with these variables are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.

Acrostic Poem Stephen Krashen:

Acrostic Poem Stephen Krashen S – Student at one time T – Teacher of teachers E – Education expert P - Professor of linguistics H – Hero/champion of Bil.Ed. E – Emeritus professor N – Noteworthy Contributions K – Knowlegable R – Researcher A – Admired for his intellect S – Scholarly H – Historic contributions E – Empiric N - Notional

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