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Alvi OUT LINE : Mobile Communications 2 OUT LINE Mobile Communications What is a Mobile? History of the Cell Phones Inside a Cell Phone Main Uses of Cell Phones New Features How Does SMS Service Work? How MMS Works 2. Issues related with Cell Phones Health Hazards of Hand Sets Effects Health hazards of base stations How Cell Phone Viruses Work PROTECTING YOUR PHONE How They Spread Mobile Communications : Mobile Communications 3 Mobile Communications A wireless form of communication in which voice and data information is emitted, transmitted and received via microwaves. Some examples include: cellular and digital cordless telephones; air-to-ground telecommunications; and satellite-based communications. What is a Mobile? : Mobile Communications 4 What is a Mobile? A cellular phone is a portable telephone that does not use a wired connection. It connects to a wireless carrier network using radio waves. History of the Cell Phones : Mobile Communications 5 History of the Cell Phones In the beginning, two-way radios (known as mobile rigs) were used in vehicles such as taxicabs, police cruisers, ambulances, and the like, Users could not dial phone numbers from their mobile radios in their vehicles. A large community of mobile radio users, known as the mobileers, popularized the During the early 1940s, Motorola developed a backpacked two-way radio, the Walkie-Talkie and later developed a large hand-held two-way radio for the US military. This battery powered “Handie-Talkie” (HT). Early Years : Mobile Communications 6 Early Years In December 1947, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young, Bell Labs engineers, proposed hexagonal cells for mobile phones. Cellular technology was undeveloped until the 1960s, when Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs developed the electronics. radio telephony was introduced on passenger airplanes for air traffic security.. Recognizable mobile phones with direct dialing have existed at least since the 1950s. The first fully automatic mobile phone system, called MTA (Mobile Telephone system A), was developed by Ericsson and commercially released in Sweden in 1956. One of the first truly successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network in Finland, launched in 1971. Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola, made the first US analogue mobile phone call on a larger prototype model in 1973. Inside a Cell Phone : Mobile Communications 7 Inside a Cell Phone Parts of A Cell Phone A microscopic microphone A speaker An LCD or plasma display A keyboard not unlike the one we saw in a TV remote control An antenna A battery An amazing circuit board containing the guts of the phone : Mobile Communications 8 Voice calling – Voice mail – E-mail –. Messaging – Mobile content – Gaming – Personalize your phone –Play music – Take photos or videos – Download and view images Organize personal information Location-based services Bank. Main Uses of Cell Phones Slide 9: Mobile Communications 9 New Features Text messaging and e-mail. Java, Microsoft operating systems, Linux, or Symbian OS, may Bluetooth Ring tones and screensavers for certain phones. Video camera in many smart phones now Nokia N95, which has a 5M pixel camera. Modern software allows simple editing and publishing of video content from phones, The arrival of video camera phones is transforming the availability of video to consumers, It is helping to fuel the idea of citizen journalism How Does SMS Service Work? : Mobile Communications 10 How Does SMS Service Work? SMS allows users to send short messages to other cell phones. messages are sent with a "store-and-forward" mechanism The messages are sent to a Short Message Service Center (SMSC) The signaling protocol is precisely 140 bytes. SMS messages have very constrained character limits. How MMS Works : Mobile Communications 11 How MMS Works MMS messages are delivered using a combination of SMS and WAP technologies. This MMS notification message contains header information about the MMS message, This URL pointer is a dynamically generated URL for the MMS message content which is stored on the MMSC. The sending phone initiates a data connection that provides TCP/IP network connectivity, usually over GPRS. The MMSC receives the MMS message submission and validates the message sender. The MMSC stores the content of the MMS message and makes it available as a dynamically generated URL link. Issues related with Cell Phones : Mobile Communications 12 Issues related with Cell Phones Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised, because mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health Hazards of Hand Sets : Mobile Communications 13 Health Hazards of Hand Sets Part of the radio waves emitted by a mobile telephone handset is absorbed by the human head. The rate at which radiation is absorbed by the human body is measured by the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), and its maximum levels for modern handsets have been set by governmental regulating agencies Thermal effects : Mobile Communications 14 Thermal effects dielectric heating, most of the heating effect will occur at the surface of the head, some parts of the human head are more sensitive to damage from increases in temperature, Blood Brain Barrier Effects Swedish researchers have studied the effects of microwave radiation on the rat brain. They found a leakage of albumin into brain via a permeated blood-brain barrier Effects On Sleep A study showed that mobile phone signals affect sleep patterns and possibly delay sleep onset during exposure. Health hazards of base stations : Mobile Communications 15 Health hazards of base stations Radiation is emitted by base stations Radiation emitted continuously and is more powerful at close quarters. People living within 300 meters of GSM cell towers in rural areas or within 100 m of base stations in urban areas complained Fatigue Headache Sleep Disruption loss of memory How Cell Phone Viruses Work : Mobile Communications 16 How Cell Phone Viruses Work The first known cell-phone virus appeared in 2004 Cabir.A infected only a small number of Bluetooth-enabled phones Most Common Viruses Cabir.A Skulls.A Commwarrior.A Locknut.B Fontal. A THE DAMAGE DONE sit in the phone and try to spread itself. might access and/or delete all of the contact information and calendar entries in phone. delete or lock up certain phone applications PROTECTING YOUR PHONE : Mobile Communications 17 PROTECTING YOUR PHONE Turn off Bluetooth discoverable mode. Check security updates to learn about filenames you should keep an eye out for. Security sites with detailed virus information include: F-Secure McAfee Symantec Install some type of security software on your phone How They Spread : Mobile Communications 18 How They Spread Internet downloads Bluetooth wireless connection The Multimedia Messaging Service Slide 19: Mobile Communications 19 Thank You… You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.